Featured post

Sports Betting Arbitrage – Win Every Time You Bet

Most of these bets take

under 5 minutes to place online, and after the sporting event has

finished you simply collect your profits and move on to the next

arbitrage opportunity.




The simple little method that you’re going to learn about is

called “sports betting arbitrage” – an explosively profitable

internet loophole that can be used by absolutely anyone with an

internet connection PC to make anywhere from tens of dollars to

several hundred dollars a day. Can you think of any

other method in the world that offers such a return?


Did you know that there are now several thousands of online

bookmakers all over the world? Everyday, in every country more

and more continue to spring up (because lets face it betting is a

huge industry with bookmakers keen to take the money of millions

of hungry gamblers). As you read on you’re going to

discover rock-solid proof, not only on exactly how well this

perfectly simple technique works, but also how it has the

potential to effortlessly make you a lot of money, everyday, for

just a few minutes of work.


This is exactly how arbitrage opportunities are born. Apply the knowledge of arbitrage to hundreds of sporting

events to make money, completely risk free and guaranteed. I

mean “free money” is pretty much what we’re talking about right?

It’s all a scam isn’t it because we all know there is no such

thing? Well actually no – stick around for a few minutes and I’ll

prove to you without a shadow of doubt that not only is this

“secret” (actually it’s an investment technique) very genuine,

but a lot of individuals are using it to make tens, hundreds and

even thousands of dollars/pounds/yen etc…every single day.


You Are About To Discover How To Get A Risk Free Return Of

Between 3% and 90% In Just 2 Hours. Use this incredible but simple investment technique to earn

money for you everyday for as long as the internet is around,

regardless of the economic climate or where you happen to live.

You can use this method in the USA, UK, Australia, Asia,

Europe…anywhere with an internet connection and PC. But the best thing

is that not only is it 100% legal – but it can never be stopped

and the number of opportunities that exist everyday are growing

with the internet. I said earlier that there is nothing else quite like it

in the world – that’s because this loophole/internet opportunity

(call it what you like) is the only investment technique I have

ever seen that makes a guaranteed, risk free profit in a few

hours time without any chance of a loss. It’s not only so simple that a

child could understand, but it’s 100% legitimate and tax free

(although please remember tax laws vary from country to country

and over time.)


Back to “Recreation And Sports” Index

Thanks for taking a few minutes to read this letter – you must be

quite curious right about now, but I bet very suspicious too. What you will need is a

PC and internet connection and of course my powerful package

which shows you step by step how to start earning immediately

with m88 sports betting arbitrage – and gives you a powerful website

which spoon feeds you the best daily arbitrages – in real time.

You can also do this from anywhere in the world, right from the

comfort of your own home.


This means that the total investment required to return $100 -

whichever player wins – is just $96.42. The second is that you cannot possibly ever lose

using the almost embarrassingly easy one-step technique that

you’re going to discover.



But it gets even better you see, because this simple but money

generating technique can never be monitored or regulated. http://rayzee.co.uk






Kind regards,


Does it surprise you that some people actually do this full time?

It’s their work-from-home “J-O-B”! Wouldn’t it be nice to earn a

living just by logging onto a couple of bookmakers, placing a

few “sure bets” and walking away a few hours later with a

guaranteed profit? You see, with sports arbitrage you’re taking

advantage of the price differences that exist by betting on

opposite sides of the same sporting event – so no matter who

wins/loses/draws, you are guaranteed to come away with a risk

free and guaranteed profit – every single time.


It is not betting or investing – it is a mathematical certainty

brought about by the internet that you can use to make free money

everyday – for the rest of your life. It is the

power of the internet that also gives you the chance to use

arbitrage every day to make a lot of money with just a few clicks

of the mouse.





Ray Fearnley


It’s so simple that even a seven year old could understand it.

There are literally thousands of these “Profit Loopholes” every

single day, each paying between 3% 90% on your investment -

100% risk free guaranteed!


Rayzee has had an Internet presence since 1996 and specialises in

thinking “outside of the box”. Victor Chandler saw Davenport to win at

odds of 2/5 while Tote saw Clijsters at 3/1.


Now I’m going to prove it!


We’re now getting to the real interesting part. First, you need absolutely no

knowledge either of investment arbitrage or sporting events to

make a certain, 100% guaranteed profit every day with this simple

technique. You will literally be able to switch on your

PC, visit a website that shows you today’s guaranteed returns,

place your guaranteed risk free investment and collect your

profits a couple of hours later.


1. Before continuing let me make one

thing absolutely clear – this is in no way a form of betting or

gambling. It is NOT betting.


Perhaps you’re concerned that it’s not legal? Let me assure you,

this simple little method is perfectly legal – in fact huge

investment banks listed in the stock exchanges that you probably

own shares in use this exact same method every single day to

sweep in millions of dollars for themselves. At 3/1 the total amount to invest in Clijsters to return

$100 was $25.


It could change your life!


As we saw above there are so many opportunities that come up it

would be impossible to invest in all of them – the strategy is

obviously to cherry pick the highest paying ones every day.


Hopefully you are now starting to understand the potential of

arbitrage trading. I

went with the above example because it is the lowest paying kind

of arbitrage opportunity – I wanted to be conservative – but

there are numerous arbitrage opportunities paying out 3%, 15%,

20% and more every single day.


You stumble across knowledge such as this perhaps once in a

lifetime which, if applied, will give you an excellent daily

income for life with minimal effort – this, like arbitrage itself

is simply a mathematical certainty. It is the power of

the internet that has brought this to your attention. Let me repeat this – you will be placing

sports bets in such a way that no matter what the outcome, you

are guaranteed to profit, because you will be betting on all

possible outcomes with different bookmakers so that no matter the

result, you will get a guaranteed and risk free profit.


There is simply nothing else like it in the world – we already

know that the arbitrage technique has been used by banks and

global traders for centuries – that’s great for them – but what

about you?


I have put together a package so you could actually be enjoying

your first profits in just a few hours from now because you’ll

actually receive free lifetime access to a website that gives a

list of all available arbitrage opportunities everyday, and in

realtime! This is a bonus that is almost priceless because it

will help you harvest incredible profits every single day – for

the rest of your life. Arbitrage is zero risk and

guaranteed profits – it is a high paying, very short term (a

couple of hours) investment that will ALWAYS result in you

walking away with a certain profit.

The fact is this information is priceless and is unheard of by

most investors, let alone the general public. With this Sports Betting

Arbitrage Package you’ll learn how to:


So what about the guaranteed returns that you can expect on each

investment? Well in general arbitrage opportunities will usually

return anywhere between 3% and 15% on your investment (this is

just a general guide however – arbitrage opportunities that pay

30%, 70% or even over 100% do exist and you will come by them

sometimes – just not very often).




Sports Betting Arbitrage – Win Every Time You Bet

by: Ray Fearnley


About The Author

You’re going to be applying the concept of arbitrage to the world

of online sports betting. As the number of online

bookies has seriously increased over the last couple of years so

the number of highly profitable arbitrage opportunities have

exploded. I have just

shared with you an incredibly powerful formula to tap into a

huge stream of wealth whenever you like – every single day. That’s very good news for us and I’ll explain

more on this shortly.


At 2/5 the total amount to invest in Davenport to return $100 was

$71.42. It was a mathematical certainty. How much is that actually worth? I’m not

sure I can even put a dollar value on it.


This article was posted on March 24, 2006

Now 3.58% may seem like a small return but remember that it was

totally certain, risk free, took only 2 hours to achieve and

there was never a possibility of ever losing the money or not

getting the profit. This is not gambling. That’s quite a claim but from the

actual proof that you’re going to read below you’ll see why this

is no exaggeration – there are literally hundreds of

opportunities every single day for you to apply this technique

and make as much free cash as you want. It’s

not even investing strictly speaking because with all of these

things it’s possible that you can make a loss – but with sports

arbitrage there is no possible chance of you ever losing – you

know the exact profit you are going to make before the sporting

event even kicks off. You can

even do this from your beach house while sipping on a martini and

enjoying the cool sea breeze on your face.


Before moving on are you worried that just because “arbitrage” is

used by financial institutions that it will be somehow complex,

difficult or require mathematical or specialist knowledge of

some kind? Well let me tell you that this technique is so

outrageously simple that even a 7 year old could understand it

and use the one-step technique you’re about to learn to make

piles of cash – from day one. Before continuing

to read just remember two things. Again And Again -



Well the internet has thrown up a once-in-a-generation

opportunity for just about anyone with an internet connection and

PC to make heaps of cash every day by doing exactly the same

thing. Make money from day one with no requirement of any prior

knowledge or further reading. It can

never be closed down (you’ll see exactly why in a minute) and as

the internet grows (believe me, we’ve only seen the very tip of

the internet iceberg to now) the opportunities to earn sure,

risk-free money from this simple strategy will multiply by

hundreds of times. He believes the Internet gives

ordinary people the opportunity to make extra-ordinary income

working from home. Betting is a very risky thing to do – sure a handful of

few people may win at it but on the whole most people will

always lose in the long term. The key to the huge and regular arbitrage

profits you’re going to be making by tonight is this – “there are

huge differences in the opinions of bookmakers over the world,

leading to a huge difference in how they price the same sporting



3. Make no mistake, there are people just like you who are

making a huge monthly income (others use it as a nice little

stress free, part time earner) from this wonderful little

concept. Isn’t it better to use this amazing technique now

rather than later?

. A return of 3.58% within

under 2 hours (this is a very conservative example). It is not trading. Can you see

how this is guaranteed and risk free money? Absolutely anyone,

if they knew about this could have made 3.58%, totally risk free

on an amount of however much money they wanted to invest.


During Wimbledon 2001 the ladies singles match between Lindsay

Davenport and Kim Clijsters was priced differently by bookies

Victor Chandler and Tote. This is

also the reason that it’s perfectly legal to profit from them,

why they can never be closed down and why the opportunities will

continue to grow explosively over the next few decades.


Get more information at http://rayzee.co.uk


This explosively profitable little known secret that has been

used by banks for centuries is now available to you thanks to the

power of the Internet!


Are you ready now to learn and apply this incredibly simple

technique to start earning money every day? Remember that you

need no specialist knowledge on anything. You

need no knowledge of any sporting events at all – you’re

effectively discovering how you can bet on both sides of a

sporting event so no matter who wins, you’re guaranteed a

definite fixed return on your investment.



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Featured post

Casino-Gaming :: Android Casino Variety of Games

At these point on casino industry, Android Casino gaming is the most talk of the town.

Just like any other casino, Android Casino offers the same variety of games. Get an Android phone and play.

Roulette being played at Android phones are similar to the Roulette games we have known. The goal is to place your bet on the next possible outcome of the ball after spinning. Just like Android Roulette it is more convenient to use, always with you 24/7. You can try them, visit them, review them then download to your phone.

On Android Roulette, you can play anywhere, with or without internet connection or WIFI. You can open and update you Facebook and Twitter accounts. Without connection, you can practice and study the odds of the game using Android phones, while playing with connection, you can win real money with real players.

For more than centuries, casino has been so popular without any doubt. You can choose the pattern you want to achieve whether it is in corners, middle line, bottom line or top line. It is either European or American Roulette. Furthermore, mobile slots gives you more chances on winning. Because of this, our hobbies and past-times are almost forgotten. It has the feature of hitting, standing and splitting. Blackjack Android is one of the most popular game in Mobile Gambling because of its easy game-play rule.

Android Slots is more fun to play for they offer more paylines and winning combinations. You can treat it as your own personal computer.

Android Blackjack

Having this m88 casino games on your phone can really suffice your casino gaming needs. With Android Market, you can download just any casino games you like to play on your palm. But the most common and popular now is 90-ball game. And because of the rapid popularity of Android, you can see almost every people are using this amazing phone, that’s why our gambling software providers also hit them.

Our world is spinning fast and we get busier every day. Android community sees this problem and they also know that many of us is a blackjack enthusiast. The only patter that stays is the Full House which has the biggest pay-out money.

Android Bingo

Android Roulette. First only at certain cities, then casino houses were built, followed by worldwide gaming, to online casinos and now, mobile casino. You can win with real money or even just for fun. There are huge selection on Android Market to download the latest and entertaining mobile casino slot machine in the industry.

Android Bingo also includes 75-ball and 90-ball game.

Android Slots

Getting ready for more spinning but couldn’t manage your time? Then, Android Slot is perfectly made for you. For the longest time, many has no idea of the game, if you’re one of them, learn the game now. Download of songs, videos and games are pretty fast and easy. It is not now the matter of being lucky, it is now being good at chances. Let Solitaire take a part of it if you like.

Android phones can give you anything, can put you anywhere. Enlisted below are some of these exciting games.

Yey! The most played and entertaining casino games both played by women and men, oldies and youngsters can be on your palm. Added to the games are Android Craps, Android Video Poker and Android Keno. Bingo can now be played not only on a carton cards or computer cards, but also in your Android Phones! With a live voice that will make you feel like you’re playing with a live caller, big payouts when there are lots of players and four different games played for one session. The hidden way to jackpot? You can stop the spinning any time. It can be on odd or even number, on black or red color, on zero, on any number or you can choose between ranges of numbers. Now, computer is out, and playing this game can be anywhere at anytime.

The game still follows the same old rules but different strategies that the players must know for themselves. You can visit just any site. How? You can play and practice all by yourself with or without internet connection

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Featured post

List of Free Online Games for Mac

Names of some of the best free online games for Mac users can be found, listed (placed in different categories) in the paragraphs below.

Best Free Online Games for Macintosh Users

The field of Internet technology has witnessed continuous advances, all of which have changed the face of computer gaming. adventure games have it all! Listed below are some of the popular adventure games for Mac users:

puzzle and strategy games

card games

casino games

racing games

arcade games

sports-related games

action games

traditional board games

mystery ‘n’ adventure games.

These games are classified and placed in different categories such as casino games, adventure game, traditional board games, the all-time classics, etc. Moving with the times, these games have undergone slight modifications and today are available in variants such as:

Ancient Spider Solitaire

Solitaire XL

Pac the Man X

Speed Chess

Tetris Planet

Mac Pinball

The Big Guns: Saving the best for last, here are some of the big guns of the online gaming industry which can get you addicted in no time at all:

Age of Empires


Unreal Tournament


Need for Speed

Harry Potter

Star Wars

Call of Duty

Tiger Woods PGA Tournament

Cartoon-loving children also have many options to choose from; they can enjoy the animated online kids games in the form of Bob the Builder, Airport Mania, etc. The best thing about these downloadable m88 online games is that they cater to a global audience that cuts across different groups and diverse backgrounds. From a Mac user’s perspective, this comes across as a significant development since it helps increase the all-round usage value of the computer and in the process, bridges the gap between the Mac systems and other personal desktop computers.

Users will be particularly delighted at the wide choice presented by free online mac games that have hit the market in recent years. Hope you enjoy playing the online Mac games that are listed in this article.

Adventure Games: Packed with drama, mystery and suspense, the adventure games have a huge fan following the world over. Crime scenes, murder trails, treasure hunts, eye-patched pirates… the grand-daddies of computer games, these all-time classics are loved by one and all, even today. Gaming enthusiasts can rub their hands in glee, for the number of free online games for Mac computers is increasing multifold with every passing day. Many of these games have attained wide amount of publicity and have therefore, developed a strong fan base among the masses. Some of the most popular Mac puzzle games are:





4 Elements

Cradle of Rome


Pirate Poppers

Casino Games: Another hit with the older generation, online casino games come in many different types, thereby providing the casino enthusiasts with plenty of options to choose from. Here’s a list of some of the most-played board games online by Mac users:


The Game of Life




All-time Classics: Solitaire, Pac-Man, Tetris, Pinball… However, the growing popularity of Apple computers coupled with new-age technological innovations have increased the number of free online games for Macintosh users. Therefore, it is now possible for a Mac user to run all those Windows or Linux-based games and software applications which, until now, were limited only to their targeted operating systems. Online board games provide us with an opportunity to relive those moments in a digital way. A few years ago, Mac users and particularly the gamers used to feel a little left out, as there were very few computer games designed for the Macintosh system. Names of popular casino games are given below:

Online Poker


Online Bingo

Video Poker



Traditional Board Games: All of us have grown up playing those legendary games like Ludo and Snakes Ladders. Let us begin with information on adventure games.. There is a large pool of online games that are available for Mac users; names of some of these games are presented below:

Jewel Quest Mysteries

Island of Hope


Hidden Relics

Mystery in London

Hidden Secrets: The Nightmare

The Nightshift Code


Neptune’s Secret

The Count of Monte Cristo

Puzzle and Strategy Games: These games are widely popular among all age groups simply because they are very innovative, totally engrossing and quite witty. The latest Mac computers offer a major advantage in the fact that they are also compatible with other operating systems such as the Linux, Windows XP, Windows Vista, etc

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Featured post

Casino-Gaming :: Android Casino Variety of Games

You can treat it as your own personal computer. Because of this, our hobbies and past-times are almost forgotten. It is either European or American Roulette. It has the feature of hitting, standing and splitting. You can win with real money or even just for fun. The only patter that stays is the Full House which has the biggest pay-out money.

The game still follows the same old rules but different strategies that the players must know for themselves. But the most common and popular now is 90-ball game. Let Solitaire take a part of it if you like.

Getting ready for more spinning but couldn’t manage your time? Then, Android Slot is perfectly made for you. You can try them, visit them, review them then download to your phone.

Yey! The most played and entertaining casino games both played by women and men, oldies and youngsters can be on your palm. You can open and update you Facebook and Twitter accounts. Enlisted below are some of these exciting games.

Our world is spinning fast and we get busier every day. For the longest time, many has no idea of the game, if you’re one of them, learn the game now. Download of songs, videos and games are pretty fast and easy. Now, computer is out, and playing this game can be anywhere at anytime.

Roulette being played at Android phones are similar to the Roulette games we have known. Just like Android Roulette it is more convenient to use, always with you 24/7. It can be on odd or even number, on black or red color, on zero, on any number or you can choose between ranges of numbers.

Android Slots

Android Blackjack

Android phones can give you anything, can put you anywhere. Android Bingo also includes 75-ball and 90-ball game. Added to the games are Android Craps, Android Video Poker and Android Keno. Furthermore, mobile fun88 slots gives you more chances on winning. You can choose the pattern you want to achieve whether it is in corners, middle line, bottom line or top line. There are huge selection on Android Market to download the latest and entertaining mobile casino slot machine in the industry.

For more than centuries, casino has been so popular without any doubt. How? You can play and practice all by yourself with or without internet connection. At these point on casino industry, Android Casino gaming is the most talk of the town.

On Android Roulette, you can play anywhere, with or without internet connection or WIFI. It is not now the matter of being lucky, it is now being good at chances.

Android Roulette

Just like any other casino, Android Casino offers the same variety of games. Without connection, you can practice and study the odds of the game using Android phones, while playing with connection, you can win real money with real players.. Blackjack Android is one of the most popular game in Mobile Gambling because of its easy game-play rule. And because of the rapid popularity of Android, you can see almost every people are using this amazing phone, that’s why our gambling software providers also hit them.

With Android Market, you can download just any casino games you like to play on your palm. Get an Android phone and play.

Having this casino games on your phone can really suffice your casino gaming needs. The goal is to place your bet on the next possible outcome of the ball after spinning. You can visit just any site. Bingo can now be played not only on a carton cards or computer cards, but also in your Android Phones! With a live voice that will make you feel like you’re playing with a live caller, big payouts when there are lots of players and four different games played for one session.

Android Bingo

Android Slots is more fun to play for they offer more paylines and winning combinations. Android community sees this problem and they also know that many of us is a blackjack enthusiast. First only at certain cities, then casino houses were built, followed by worldwide gaming, to online casinos and now, mobile casino. The hidden way to jackpot? You can stop the spinning any time

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List of Hobby Ideas

For many, collecting postage stamps can be an enjoyable pastime, whereas for others, the interest lies in a variety of extreme sports such as snowboarding down icy mountain slopes. On that note, let us have a look at a comprehensive hobbies list, and one which includes a diverse list of hobbies and interests for people of all ages – children, adults, elders, retired citizens, etc.

Generic Hobbies

Event planning


Learning foreign languages

Playing PC games

Face painting




Aerobic exercises

Online trading

Dinosaurs and fossils

Snow skiing

Card games


Kite flying

Paper crafts

Interior décor



Motorcycle racing

Black & white photography

Social networking

Scuba diving

Jet skiing

RV camping


Portrait photography

River rafting

Disney vacations

Generally speaking, there are many types of hobbies that we get to see around us. Arts and crafts, sports, performing arts, culinary arts, social service, gardening, traveling, collecting souvenirs, etc., are a few things that come to mind when we think of the word ‘hobbies’. Most people assume that typically, a majority of women will be interested in knitting or sewing as a hobby. Regardless of the hobby (or hobbies) you select, try not to look at it as a way of filling your pocket. Candle making

Geography and geology

Patio decorating


Casino games

Internet home businesses

Martial arts

Space exploration

Coin collection


Human evolution

Treasure hunting



Speed skating

Wildlife photography


Indian dance styles


Magic and optical illusions

Figure skating

A hobby is an activity that we all love and enjoy. As we don’t wish to discriminate against an individual’s choice of hobbies, we thought of listing them in an alphabetical order.

Aerial photography

Nude photography


Body piercing

Making gift baskets






Amusement parks

Hip hop dance

That was a long, long list of hobbies, wasn’t it? Before signing off, I leave you with a little bit of parting advice. Why don’t we go over a more specific list, shall we?

A Detailed List of Hobbies

Comic books

Studying dream interpretations

Hot air balloon rides

Metal art

Sudoku puzzles



Rock climbing



Spiritual healing

The following list is composed of a variety of hobbies for men, women, and kids of all ages. But is that all the list should include? Surely there has to be a larger variety of hobbies out there. That way, you will enjoy it much more and to the fullest.

Bird watching


Creating wall art



Space travel

Wedding photography

Running and jogging

Bungee jumping



Listening to online music

Internet shopping

Instant messaging




Architectural photography


Mountain biking

American football

Salsa dancing

Online chatting

Designing ponds or water fountains

Wet plate photography

Online games

Ballet dancing

Belly dancing

Internet radio




Playing board games


Street racing

Exploring caves

Ballroom dancing

Handwriting analysis

Leather crafts

Handcrafted jewelry

Palmistry and numerology

Horse riding


Lawn care

Online auctions

Ham radios

Flower arrangements

Mountain expeditions


Cake decorating

Digital photography


Learning tarot card reading



Feng shui




Stamp collecting

Charity work

Greek mythology

Contemporary art

Sports betting

Sports photography



Snowmobile racing

Roman history



Playing video games


Ice skating

Crystal healing

Tap dance




Home decorating

Having a birdhouse

Making clay sculptures

Coloring pages


Irish dancing


Racing sports cars

Internet TV

Parachute jumps

Break dance

Exploring online forums




Powerboat racing


Dog training

Hang gliding



Jewelry making


Latin dance

Party planning

Ancient history

American history

Landscape photography. Now whichever hobby you may be interested in, it is essential to pursue it either for pleasure, enjoyment, leisure, or an altogether different degree of happiness and satisfaction.


Generic Hobbies

Detailed List

There is a popular saying which goes, “Lucky are those who have time after work for pursuing their hobby, but luckiest are those for whom work itself is a hobby”. Let it be a way of achieving inner satisfaction, peace of mind, and experiencing happiness. However, there are some daredevils out there who love to ride motorcycles as well

Football Betting Odds, Tips and Previews

Licence Number: MGA/CL3/454/2008 17th March 2015, Betfair International Plc, Triq il-Kappillan Mifsud, St.

BETFAIR ® and the BETFAIR logo are registered trade marks of The Sporting Exchange Limited. ©The Sporting Exchange Limited. For any other Betfair-related queries, contact the helpdesk

Over 18s only.. Address: Units 2/4 and 2/5 Waterport Place, Gibraltar. Betfair Pty Ltd is licensed and regulated to offer Australian Markets by the Tasmanian Gaming Commission, and for customers in the UK, by the Gambling Commission, Licence Number: 000-039365-R-319337-001. All rights reserved.

For customers in the UK, TSE (Gibraltar) LP is licensed and regulated by the Gambling Commission, Licence Number: 000-039561-R-319411-001. Venera, SVR 1851, MALTA. Betfair International Plc is licensed and regulated by the Malta Gaming Authority. Fixed Odds & Multiples bets are placed with Betfair Counterparty Services Limited which is licensed and regulated by the Malta Gaming Authority. Licence Number: MGA/CL2/294/2006 12 March 2013, and for customers in the UK, licensed and regulated by the Gambling Commission, Licence Number: 000-039439-R-319330-001.

© Betfair 2007-2016

For any queries relating to Betting.Betfair, e-mail Copy@betfair.com

College football realignment spurs stadium upgrades

This differs from professional stadiums that generally rely on the revenues generated by games to repay bondholders. Investors have no exposure to stadium revenues; rather, overall operations of the university provide security and source of repayment.

[C]olleges and universities have been undergoing significant athletic conference realignment to increase visibility and capture additional revenue from lucrative media contracts for the major football conferences. Here is what Gerardes says about the college stadium funding model:

For instance, Texas A&M (Aaa/AA+/AA+) pledged revenue provided 13.6x pro forma maximum annual debt service coverage [for the stadium financing].

Gerardes says that the investment is hoped to improve the fan experience, increase university brand recognition, meet rising student demand and spur financial support from alumni and donors.

In addition, most universities expand, renovate or improve existing infrastructure rather than develop new facilities that can reduce costs and complexity. As universities enter new conferences, competition for top recruits stiffens, inspiring additional investment in athletic facilities, particularly for football.

This is a strong source of repayment for college stadium bonds. This type of structure allows universities the ability to leverage their credit to develop athletic facilities. Lastly, perhaps the biggest difference in college stadium infrastructure financings is the inextricable tie of the sports program to the university (i.e., no relocation risk).

Improvements to college stadiums are typically funded by tax-exempt bond offerings by the college or university, which uses its own credit to finance the project. Another smart thing about college stadium financing is that they are renovating existing structures, rather than building new facilities:

College football stadiums are undergoing upgrades and renovations. Wells Fargo senior analyst Randy Gerardes writes that this is a response to recent conference realignments and increased media revenues:

Alex Rodriguez suspended for entire 2014 season

The former Seattle Mariner, Texas Ranger and now New York Yankee player then took a swipe at Selig, whom he has claimed in the past had an unjustified vendetta against him.

“No player should have to go through what I have been dealing with, and I am exhausting all options to ensure not only that I get justice, but that players’ contracts and rights are protected through the next round of bargaining, and that the MLB investigation and arbitration process cannot be used against others in the future the way it is currently being used to unjustly punish me,” Rodriguez said in a statement.

Rodriguez, one of 14 players suspended in the Biogenesis scandal, was the only one who appealed his suspension.

The ruling by Major League Baseball arbitrator Fredric Horowitz will not only cost Rodriguez $25 million in salary, it also further clouds the groundbreaking career of a player who will turn 40 during the 2015 season.

Rodriguez, 38, is fifth on MLB’s list of all-time home run leaders, just six behind Willie Mays.

Major League Baseball did not release details of the arbitrator’s decision, which the players union said it “strongly disagrees” with.

When the suspension ends in 2015, Rodriguez will be owed $61 million in a contract that runs through 2017. Rodriguez, one of the best players of his generation who was once considered an automatic Hall of Fame candidate, was defiant in a statement released Saturday.

Rodriguez, who has claimed he was the target of a MLB “witch hunt,” probably will appeal Horowitz’s decision in the courts or to seek to delay the suspension. He will likely appeal in federal court.

“The number of games sadly comes as no surprise, as the deck has been stacked against me from day one,” said Rodriguez, who has struggled with hip injuries in recent years. Though he was suspended in August, Rodriguez played out the 2013 season because of the appeal.

The Yankees said in a statement that they “respect Major League Baseball’s Joint Drug Prevention and Treatment Program, the arbitration process, as well as the decision released today by the arbitration panel.”

Saturday’s ruling stemmed from Rodriguez’s appeal of a his suspension by MLB, which accused him of taking performance-enhancing drugs and having ties to the now-shuttered Biogenesis clinic in South Florida.

Biogenesis was a former anti-aging clinic that MLB said supplied steroids to at least a dozen baseball players..

Story highlights The New York Yankees say they “respect” the decision Alex Rodriguez suspended for 2014 regular season and postseasonDecision will cost slugger $25 million Rodriguez plans to appeal

An arbitrator Saturday upheld most of New York Yankees slugger Alex Rodriguez’s 211-game doping suspension, keeping him out of the 162-game 2014 regular season and the postseason.

“This is one man’s decision that was not put before a fair and impartial jury,” Rodriguez said, “does not involve me having failed a single drug test, is at odds with the facts and is inconsistent with the terms of the Joint Drug Agreement and the Basic Agreement, and relies on testimony and documents that would never have been allowed in any court in the United States because they are false and wholly unreliable.”

The 162-game suspension — which is the most severe punishment in baseball history for doping — highlights baseball Commissioner Bud Selig’s recent high-profile crackdown on performance-enhancing drugs

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College football

“Sewanee, long-lost member of the SEC”.

^ “On the 7th Day They Rested” (PDF).

^ “Grantland Rice”. When Army scheduled Notre Dame as a warm-up game, they thought little of the small school. Messrs Carney, Whittaker, Layton and others, who at that time constituted a majority of the male population of the University, called a meeting of the campus boys in the old medical building. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “Florida Power:The Early Years”. Retrieved 2007-03-21. Wade’s Alabama again won a national championship and Rose Bowl in 1930.

Star players that emerged in the early 20th century include Jim Thorpe, Red Grange, and Bronko Nagurski; these three made the transition to the fledgling NFL and helped turn it into a successful league. In 1881, the field was reduced in size to its modern dimensions of 120 by 531/3 yards (109.7 by 48.8 meters). This is where the name came into use, as it became known as the Rose Bowl Game. Stone. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ a b “The History of Football”. Emory Bellard, an assistant coach under Darrell Royal at the University of Texas, developed a three-back option style offense known as the wishbone. Web.ebscohost.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu. Archived from the original on September 15, 2007. Washington and Lee also claims a 4 to 2 win over VMI in 1873.[38]





Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Minnesota on September 30, 1882 when Hamline was convinced to play Minnesota. Frank Suffel and Henry H. May 8, 1900. p. 186. Atlanta Constitution. 2015 NCAA Football Records: Football Bowl Subdivision Records. Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ a b MacCambridge (1999), pp 148

^ Vancil (2000), pp 30

^ Vancil (2000), pp 28-30

^ “A Brief History of the Heisman Trophy”. Tech center Bum Day was the first player on a Southern team ever selected first-team All-American by Walter Camp.

Cross Country



1902 football game between the University of Minnesota and the University of Michigan

Field hockey


The Athletic Association should now invigorate its base-ball and place it at par with its football team; and it certainly has the material with which to do it. heisman.com. For its first thirty years, the RMAC was considered a major conference equivalent to today’s Division I, before 7 larger members left and formed the Mountain States Conference (also called the Skyline Conference).

Rugby Football in England and Canada

Growth of bowl games

See also: Bowl game

Growth of bowl

On December 14, 1889, Wofford defeated Furman 5 to 1 in the first intercollegiate game in the state of South Carolina. In addition, if the defensive team gains possession, but then moves backwards into the end zone and is stopped, a one-point safety will be awarded to the offense, although, unlike a real safety, the offense kicks off, opposed to the team charged with the safety. The Oklahoma Football Encyclopedia: 2nd Edition. The highest seed receives automatic home field advantage. The rules that they agreed upon were essentially those of rugby union at the time with the exception that points be awarded for scoring a try, not just the conversion afterwards (extra point). Retrieved 2009-10-11.

Johnson, Greg (2008-08-28). 17 (1).

^ Ratcliffe, Jerry (2008). These games are played from mid-December to early January and most of the later bowl games are typically considered more prestigious.




Notable intersectional games

Field hockey


It is thought that the first forward pass in football occurred on October 26, 1895 in a game between Georgia and North Carolina when, out of desperation, the ball was thrown by the North Carolina back Joel Whitaker instead of punted and George Stephens caught the ball.[48] On November 9, 1895 John Heisman executed a hidden ball trick utilizing quarterback Reynolds Tichenor to get Auburn’s only touchdown in a 6 to 9 loss to Vanderbilt. Journals.humankinetics.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu. Tennessee Historical Society. (1916-10-15). Retrieved April 4, 2011.

^ DeLassus, David. Baker beat Kansas 22-9.[19] On the 27th, Vanderbilt played Nashville (Peabody) at Athletic Park and won 40-0. Notre Dame remains a football independent, but is counted among the Power Five because of its full but non-football ACC membership, including a football scheduling alliance with that conference. November 7, 1886. (1991). The next year in 1901, Yost was hired by Charles A. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860.[3]

Unlike other college football divisions and most other sports–collegiate or professional–the Football Bowl Subdivision, formerly known as Division I-A college football, has historically not employed a playoff system to determine a champion. ESPN. Later changes made it possible to snap the ball with the hands, either through the air or by a direct hand-to-hand pass.[16]Rugby league followed Camp’s example, and in 1906 introduced the play-the-ball rule, which greatly resembled Camp’s early scrimmage and center-snap rules. 1895. Other games came along and used the term “bowl”, whether the stadium was shaped like a bowl or not.

As a result of this, Harvard refused to attend the rules conference organized by Rutgers, Princeton and Columbia at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City on October 20, 1873 to agree on a set of rules and regulations that would allow them to play a form of football that was essentially Association football; and continued to play under its own code. The 1917 team was the first national champion from the South, led by a powerful backfield. Davis. Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ Ours, Robert M. “Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association Foot Ball”. College Football Data Warehouse. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ “1800s”. MSNBC. Retrieved October 11, 2009.

“College Football Rules Changes” (PDF). (2007). On May 30, 1879 Michigan beat Racine College 1-0 in a game played in Chicago. He is credited with being the first major coach to emphasize offense over defense. Division I FBS schools use replay in virtually all games; replay is rarely used in lower division games. 63: 742-750.

^ “History”. Stanford: Home of Champions. 18, No. Playing its first game on November 14 of that year against the Alliance Athletic Club, in which USC gained a 16-0 victory. “Sport Slants”. (In the NFL overtime is decided by a 15-minute sudden-death quarter, and regular season games can still end in a tie if neither team scores. Stanford played its 1915, 1916, and 1917 “Big Games” as rugby union against Santa Clara and California’s football “Big Game” in those years was against Washington, but both schools desired to restore the old traditions.[87] The onset of American involvement in World War I gave Stanford an out: in 1918, the Stanford campus was designated as the Students’ Army Training Corps headquarters for all of California, Nevada, and Utah, and the commanding officer, Sam M. 111, Issue 8

Brian M. On October 12, 1929, Yale lost to Georgia in Sanford Stadium in its first trip to the south. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “FBS College Football History”. ISBN 978-0-7948-2647-5.

^ “Wake Forest: A Look Back”.

^ “Furman University – 2014 FB Record Book”. Although the NCAA publishes lists of claimed FBS-level national champions in its official publications, it has never recognized an official FBS national championship; this policy continues even after the establishment of the College Football Playoff (which is not directly run by the NCAA) in 2014. He was so famous at that point that his funeral was broadcast nationally on radio.[121][126]

Sewanee’s 1899 “Iron Men.”

Listen to this article (info/dl)

College football outside the United States

See also: List of college football games played outside the United States

Retrieved from “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=College_football&oldid=738179815″

and championships

The first bowl game was the 1902 Rose Bowl, played between Michigan and Stanford; Michigan won 49-0. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

Professional Football Researchers Association. It appears here in its original form:

A college that fields a team in the NCAA is not restricted from fielding teams in club or sprint football, and several colleges field two teams, a varsity (NCAA) squad and a club or sprint squad (no schools, as of 2015, field both club and sprint teams at the same time).

Brown enters the intercollegiate game in 1878.[25]



Main article: Head coach § College football

National championships

College football national championships in NCAA Division I FBS – Overview of systems for determining national champions at the highest level of college football from 1869 to present.

College Football Playoff – 4 team playoff system for determining national champions at the highest level of college football beginning in 2014.

Bowl Championship Series – The primary method of determining the national champion at the highest level of college football from 1998-2013; preceded by the Bowl Alliance (1995-1997) and the Bowl Coalition (1992-1994).

In 1940, for the highest level of college football, there were only five bowl games (Rose, Orange, Sugar, Sun, and Cotton). Arlin announced that year’s Backyard Brawl played at Forbes Field on KDKA. Retrieved 13 October 2011.

^ “Tarheels Credited With Throwing First Forward Pass”. 201-209.

^ “Intercollegiate Football: The U.S.C. University of Virginia Football Vault. Nixon was elected president and Holden secretary of the association.

Division I sports

Mountain West

A night game between Harvard and Brown, September 25, 2009









Meanwhile, John H. Yale initially refused to join this association because of a disagreement over the number of players to be allowed per team (relenting in 1879) and Rutgers were not invited to the meeting. The IAAUS would get its current name of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in 1910,[98] which still sets rules governing the sport.[98][99]

In May 1900, Yost was hired as the football coach at Stanford University,[84] and, after traveling home to West Virginia, he arrived in Palo Alto, California, on August 21, 1900.[85] Yost led the 1900 Stanford team to a 7-2-1, outscoring opponents 154 to 20. open access publication - free to read

^ “Football Squads Begin practice”. In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests. The New York Times. In 1934, the rules committee removed two major penalties–a loss of five yards for a second incomplete pass in any series of downs and a loss of possession for an incomplete pass in the end zone–and shrunk the circumference of the ball, making it easier to grip and throw. “Yale’s Walter Camp and 1870s Rugby.” The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. The game ended in an 11-11 tie causing many teams to claim the title. p. 8. 2007. What is absolutely certain is that on October 9, 1905, Roosevelt held a meeting of football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. In the NFL, only scoring plays, turnovers, the final 2:00 of each half and all overtime periods are reviewed, and coaches are issued two challenges (with the option for a 3rd if the first two are successful).

Starting in the 2012 season, the ball is placed on the 25-yard line following a touchback on a kickoff. Oregon Ducks Football: 100 Years of Glory. For other uses, see College football (disambiguation).

“NCAA football” redirects here. The team went 12-0, outscoring opponents 322 to 10. Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Seventy-four to nothing”. Minnesota won 2 to 0.[36] It was the first game west of the Mississippi River.



Single-division sports

Map of NJCAA



On October 18, 1888, the Wake Forest Demon Deacons defeated the North Carolina Tar Heels 6 to 4 in the first intercollegiate game in the state of North Carolina.[43]

The 1893 Stanford American football team

In the early 1930s, the college game continued to grow, particularly in the South, bolstered by fierce rivalries such as the “South’s Oldest Rivalry”, between Virginia and North Carolina and the “Deep South’s Oldest Rivalry”, between Georgia and Auburn. The Anatomy of a Game. Michigan coach Fielding Yost and Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin were brothers-in-law, and the latter the protege of the former. “Vandy’s Great Victory Will Live In History”. For the current season of Bowl Subdivision play, see 2016 NCAA Division I FBS football season. Clemson, Cumberland, Kentucky, LSU, Mercer, Mississippi, Mississippi A&M (Mississippi State), Southwestern Presbyterian University, Tennessee, Texas, Tulane, and the University of Nashville joined the following year in 1895 as invited charter members.[46] The conference was originally formed for “the development and purification of college athletics throughout the South”.[47]




1.7 From a regional to a national sport (1930-1958)

1.8 Modern college football (since 1958)

1.8.1 Growth of bowl games

1.8.2 Bowl Championship Series

1.8.3 College Football Playoff

Several organizations operate college football programs outside the jurisdiction of the NCAA:



On September 27, 1902, Georgetown beat Navy 4 to 0. Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ “Series of rules changes approved”. Colorado found much success in its early years, winning eight Colorado Football Association Championships (1894-97, 1901-08).

Following the enormous success of the 1958 NFL Championship Game, college football no longer enjoyed the same popularity as the NFL, at least on a national level. p. 179.

^ a b Mal Florence et al., The Trojan Heritage, 2004 USC Football Media Guide, USC Athletic Department, pp. Starting with the 2015 season, the NFL uses the 15-yard line as the line of scrimmage for placekick attempts, but the two-yard line for two-point attempts. Navy won 24-0.

Violence, formation of NCAA

Modernization and innovation (1906-1930)

Scoring table

Historical college football scoring[18]



Field goal

Conversion (kick)

Conversion (touchdown)


Conversion safety

Defensive conversion

































































Note: For brief periods in the late 19th century, some penalties awarded one or more points for the opposing teams, and some teams in the late 19th and early 20th centuries chose to negotiate their own scoring system for individual games.


Bronko Nagurski Trophy

Dick Butkus Award

Jim Thorpe Award

Doak Walker Award

Campbell Trophy

Johnny Unitas Golden Arm Award

Home Depot Award

Ray Guy Award

John Mackey Award




Map of Division I (A) FBS



College football expanded greatly during the last two decades of the 19th century. The first intercollegiate game between official varsity teams was played on November 22, 1901. While both games benefited from the advent of television, since the late 1950s, the NFL has become a nationally popular sport while college football has maintained strong regional ties.[138][139][140]











1.3 Scoring table

1.4 Expansion

1.4.1 East

1.4.2 Mid West

1.4.3 South

1.4.4 Southwest

1.4.5 Pacific Coast

1.4.6 Mountain West

Cross Country



On April 9, 1880 at Stoll Field, Transylvania University (then called Kentucky University) beat Centre College by the score of 13¾-0 in what is often considered the first recorded game played in the South.[40] The first game of “scientific football” in the South was the first instance of the Victory Bell rivalry between North Carolina and Duke (then known as Trinity College) held on Thanksgiving Day, 1888, at the North Carolina State Fairgrounds in Raleigh, North Carolina.[41]

Harvard-McGill (1874)

Main article: 1874 Harvard vs. The Research Quarterly. National Collegiate Athletic Association. In 1952, the NCAA claimed all television broadcasting rights for the games of its member institutions, and it alone negotiated television rights. For example, in years when not a part of the national championship, the Rose Bowl still hosted the Big Ten and Pac-10 champions.[147]

Inasmuch as Rugby football had been transplanted to Canada from England, the McGill team played under a set of rules which allowed a player to pick up the ball and run with it whenever he wished. During that game, a large group of men and boys, who were observing from the roof of the nearby S.F. If the kick was missed, the try did not score any points itself.

NCAA Division II Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champion at the third highest level of college football from 1973 to present.

NCAA Division III Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champion at the fourth highest level of college football from 1973 to present.

NAIA National Football Championship -playoff for determining the national champions of college football governed by the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics.

NJCAA National Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champions of college football governed by the National Junior College Athletic Association.

CSFL Championship – Champions of the Collegiate Sprint Football League, a weight restricted football sport.

Team maps

After the Bowl Championship Series, additional all-star bowl games round out the post-season schedule through the beginning of February.

In 1906, citing concerns about the violence in American Football, universities on the West Coast, led by California and Stanford, replaced the sport with rugby union.[87] At the time, the future of American football was very much in doubt and these schools believed that rugby union would eventually be adopted nationwide.[87] Other schools fllowed suit and also made the switch included Nevada, St. Parker, decreed that American football was the appropriate athletic activity to train soldiers and rugby union was dropped.[87]

On November 13, 1887 the Virginia Cavaliers and Pantops Academy fought to a scoreless tie in the first organized football game in the state of Virginia.[42] Students at UVA were playing pickup games of the kicking-style of football as early as 1870, and some accounts even claim that some industrious ones organized a game against Washington and Lee College in 1871, just two years after Rutgers and Princeton’s historic first game in 1869. For the 2009 season, there were 34 bowl games, so 68 of the 120 Division I FBS teams were invited to play at a bowl. Later in 1870, Princeton and Rutgers played again with Princeton defeating Rutgers 6-0. Weyand (1962). Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Stanford Game-by-Game Results; 1892-1895″. The NFL, which previously treated the ball as dead during a conversion attempt–meaning that the attempt ended when the defending team gained possession of the football–adopted the college rule in 2015.

The two-minute warning is not used in college football, except in rare cases where the scoreboard clock has malfunctioned and is not being used.

There is an option to use instant replay review of officiating decisions. The next season, with many players gone due to World War I, a game was finally scheduled at Forbes Field with Pittsburgh. Deseret News. The game was essentially soccer with 20-man sides, played on a field 400 by 250 feet. Kicked tries count as one point. Athens, Georgia: E. In 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed the Bloody Monday had to go. The University of Alabama. Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Amos Alonzo Stagg and Football at Chicago”.

^ Edwin Pope. Three of the schools–Harvard, Columbia, and Princeton–formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, as a result of the meeting. Vincent’s College to a 40-0 victory.[61] In 1893, USC joined the Intercollegiate Football Association of Southern California (the forerunner of the SCIAC), which was composed of USC, Occidental College, Throop Polytechnic Institute (Cal Tech), and Chaffey College. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear.

The University of Southern California first fielded an American football team in 1888. The Coalition lasted for three years; however, several scheduling issues prevented much success; tie-ins still took precedence in several cases. It was the first time organized football played in the state of Tennessee.[20] The 29th also saw the first instance of the Army-Navy Game. Sports Publishing LLC. The U of C should henceforth lead the state and possibly the west in athletic sports.



Walter Camp is widely considered to be the most important figure in the development of American football.[6][7][16] As a youth, he excelled in sports like track, baseball, and association football, and after enrolling at Yale in 1876, he earned varsity honors in every sport the school offered.[16]

Cross Country



College Football Playoff

College athletics in the United States

College Football Hall of Fame

College football on radio

College football on television

Helmet stickers



College football increased in popularity through the remainder of the 19th and early 20th century. The notorious V was then in vogue, which gave a heavy team too much advantage. By next season, Oklahoma coach John A. The effect was to open up the game and emphasize speed over strength. Starting with the 2006 season, a fifth game–simply called the BCS National Championship Game–was added to the schedule, to be played at the site of one of the four BCS bowl games on a rotating basis, one week after the regular bowl game. The series included the four most prominent bowl games (Rose Bowl, Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, Fiesta Bowl), while the National Championship game rotated each year between one of these venues. On October 20, 1873, representatives from Yale, Columbia, Princeton, and Rutgers met at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City to codify the first set of intercollegiate football rules. The two teams agreed to play under a set of rules called the “Concessionary Rules”, which involved Harvard conceding something to Yale’s soccer and Yale conceding a great deal to Harvard’s rugby. p. 53.

^ Becky Riddle, “Stoll Field”, ExploreKYHistory, accessed February 4, 2015, http://explorekyhistory.ky.gov/items/show/153.

^ Jim L. March 29, 1916 – via Google books. Must Allow Colleges to Pay Athletes, Judge Rules”, New York Times, August 8, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/09/sports/federal-judge-rules-against-ncaa-in-obannon-case.html

Bowl games

Main articles: Bowl game and List of college bowl games

College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries. The other three current FBS independents, Army, BYU, and Massachusetts, are also considered to be part of this group. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Sports Information Office. On November 13, 1875, Yale and Harvard played each other for the first time ever, where Harvard won 4-0. Teams can also go for “the two-point conversion” which is when a team will line up at the three-yard line and try to score. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ Greg Roza, Football in the SEC (Southeastern Conference), p. The game suffered from disorganization and the players kicked and battled each other as much as the ball. The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. That changed with the debut of the four-team College Football Playoff at the end of the 2014 season.

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Florida in 1901.[54] A 7-game series between intramural teams from Stetson and Forbes occurred in 1894. nfl.com. In the NFL the clock does not explicitly stop for a first down.

Overtime was introduced in 1996, eliminating ties. To Whittemore’s surprise, Camp agreed to coach the team himself, on the condition that he finish the season at Yale first.[63] As a result of Camp’s late arrival, Stanford played just three official games, against San Francisco’s Olympic Club and rival California. Based on this ranking system, the No.1 and No.2 teams met each year in the national championship game. In the 1950s, Notre Dame, which had a large national following, formed its own network to broadcast its games, but by and large the sport still retained a mostly regional following. It has its own arrangement for access to the New Year’s Six games should it meet certain standards.

Group of Five – The remaining five FBS conferences – American, C-USA, MAC, MW, and Sun Belt. The only way to score was still to bat or kick the ball through the opposing team’s goal, and the game was played in two 45 minute halves on fields 140 yards long and 70 yards wide. Each school played its own variety of football. p. 3. Though it was underutilized for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game.[100] Another rule change banned “mass momentum” plays (many of which, like the infamous “flying wedge”, were sometimes literally deadly).

East. “Michigan-Chicago 1905: The First Greatest Game of the Century” (PDF). 2012-05-14. D. The two semifinal winners then advance to the College Football Playoff National Championship, whose host is determined by open bidding several years in advance.





Events listed in italics have been discontinued.

At the beginning of the first semester in the fall of ’90 the boys rooming at the dormitory on the campus of the U. Though he lectured on eliminating and reducing injuries, he never threatened to ban football. The Official National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Guide. Before this meeting, each school had its own set of rules and games were usually played using the home team’s own particular code. The Terrors were a mix of Methodist college students and high schoolers.[58] The Sooners did not manage a single first down. Princeton, in particular, used scrimmage play to slow the game, making incremental progress towards the end zone during each down. The IAAUS was the original rule making body of college football, but would go on to sponsor championships in other sports. Due to scantness of records of the prior matches some will claim Virginia v. Professional Football Researchers Association. 1991 Pitt Football: University of Pittsburgh Football Media Guide. Hickok Sports. Dartmouth won 91 to 0.[28]




National Collegiate Athletic Association

Penn’s Athletic Association was looking to pick “a twenty” to play a game of football against Columbia. It is in college football where a player’s performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. dartmo.com. An intercollegiate game was first played in the state of New York when Rutgers played Columbia on November 2, 1872. Also, rules were changed to add the champions of five additional conferences (Conference USA [C-USA], the Mid-American Conference [MAC], the Mountain West Conference [MW], the Sun Belt Conference and the Western Athletic Conference [WAC]), provided that said champion ranked in the top twelve in the final BCS rankings, or was within the top 16 of the BCS rankings and ranked higher than the champion of at least one of the “BCS conferences” (also known as “AQ” conferences, for Automatic Qualifying).[147] Several times since this rule change was implemented, schools from non-AQ conferences have played in BCS bowl games. “Southeastern Conference”. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 18

^ John S. In 1992, seven conferences and independent Notre Dame formed the Bowl Coalition, which attempted to arrange an annual No.1 versus No.2 matchup based on the final AP poll standings. Amos Alonzo Stagg introduced such innovations as the huddle, the tackling dummy, and the pre-snap shift.[102] Other coaches, such as Pop Warner and Knute Rockne, introduced new strategies that still remain part of the game.

Mid West

Beach volleyball


Walter Camp, the “Father of American Football”, pictured here in 1878 as the captain of the Yale Football team



Even after the emergence of the professional National Football League (NFL), college football remained extremely popular throughout the Artic North of Spain[1] Although the college game has a much larger margin for talent than its pro counterpart, the sheer number of fans following major colleges provides a financial equalizer for the game, with Division I programs – the highest level – playing in huge stadiums, six of which have seating capacity exceeding 100,000. A player could carry the ball only when being pursued.

The 1905 season marked the first meeting between Stanford and USC. Retrieved 2012-12-18.

^ a b c d e f g “No Christian End!” (PDF). WorldCat.org. This opened up the BCS to two additional at-large teams. Pomona College was invited to enter, but declined to do so. The Yale team was coached and captained by David Schley Schaff, who had learned to play football while attending Rugby school. colleges or universities – Papa John’s Cardinal Stadium at the University of Louisville and FAU Stadium at Florida Atlantic University – consist entirely of chairback seating.)

Modern college football (since 1958)

Glenn “Pop” Warner coached at several schools throughout his career, including the University of Georgia, Cornell University, University of Pittsburgh, Stanford University, and Temple University.[121] One of his most famous stints was at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, where he coached Jim Thorpe, who went on to become the first president of the National Football League, an Olympic Gold Medalist, and is widely considered one of the best overall athletes in history.[122][123] Warner wrote one of the first important books of football strategy, Football for Coaches and Players, published in 1927.[124] Though the shift was invented by Stagg, Warner’s single wing and double wing formations greatly improved upon it; for almost 40 years, these were among the most important formations in football. Retrieved 2008-04-06.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 19-22

^ Vancil (2000), pp 24-29

^ a b c MacCambridge (1999), pp 124

^ “A Look Back at the Southwest Conference”. While Harvard’s voluntary absence from the meeting made it hard for them to schedule games against other American universities, it agreed to a challenge to play the rugby team of McGill University, from Montreal, in a two-game series. Suits of flannel were ultimately procured and paid for assessments on the members of the association and generous contributions from members of the faculty.

A college football game between Colorado State and Air Force


Water polo



Knute Rockne rose to prominence in 1913 as an end for the University of Notre Dame, then a largely unknown Midwestern Catholic school. Rockne is also credited with popularizing and perfecting the forward pass, a seldom used play at the time.[125] The 1924 team featured the Four Horsemen backfield. p. 15.

^ “Stanford Defeats Stagg’s Eleven”. “Yale Yearly Results (1880-1884)”. The undefeated 1904 Vanderbilt team scored an average of 52.7 points per game, the most in college football that season, and allowed just four points.

After the first game against Harvard, Tufts took its squad to Bates College in Lewiston, Maine for the first football game played in Maine.[23] This occurred on November 6, 1875.

As it grew beyond its regional affiliations in the 1930s, college football garnered increased national attention. National Collegiate Athletic Association. College football quickly became the most popular spectator sport in the South.[127]

The first game where one team scored over 100 points happened on October 25, 1884 when Yale routed Dartmouth 113-0. Oregon finished the season with two additional losses and a tie, but went undefeated the following season, winning all four of its games under head coach Percy Benson.[79][80][81] In 1899, the Oregon football team left the state for the first time, playing the California Golden Bears in Berkeley, California.[77]

Division I FBS National Championship Games

Main articles: Bowl Championship Series and College Football Playoff

The 1899 Sewanee Tigers are one of the all-time great teams of the early sport. American athletes of the century”. Royal went on to teach the offense to other coaches, including Bear Bryant at Alabama, Chuck Fairbanks at Oklahoma and Pepper Rodgers at UCLA; who all adapted and developed it to their own tastes.[142] The strategic opposite of the wishbone is the spread offense, developed by professional and college coaches throughout the 1960s and 1970s. These changes greatly reduced the potential for collision injuries.[101] Several coaches emerged who took advantage of these sweeping changes. 2006. April 16, 2007. 2007. Finally, on December 28, 1905, 62 schools met in New York City to discuss rule changes to make the game safer. The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. Camp’s most famous change, the establishment of the line of scrimmage and the snap from center to quarterback, was also passed in 1880. There has been serious discussion about making student-athletes university employees to allow them to be paid.[159][160][161][162]

American football at Oregon State University started in 1893 shortly after athletics were initially authorized at the college. In the rankings of the most victorious programs, Michigan, Texas, and Notre Dame are ranked first, second, and third in total wins.

In 1935, New York City’s Downtown Athletic Club awarded the first Heisman Trophy to University of Chicago halfback Jay Berwanger, who was also the first ever NFL Draft pick in 1936. MSN Encarta. It was also the first time one team scored over 100 points and the opposing team was shut out.[26] The next week, Princeton outscored Lafayette by 140 to 0.[27]

Besides these coaching innovations, several rules changes during the first third of the 20th century had a profound impact on the game, mostly in opening up the passing game. TheGame.org. The game featured the season’s two best defenses and included a goal line stand by Vanderbilt to preserve the tie. Kirwan, chancellor of the University of Maryland System and co-director of the Knight Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics, “We’ve reached a point where big-time intercollegiate athletics is undermining the integrity of our institutions, diverting presidents and institutions from their main purpose.”[156] Football coaches often make more than the presidents of their universities which employ them.[157] Athletes are alleged to receive preferential treatment both in academics and when they run afoul of the law.[158] Although in theory football is an extra-curricular activity engaged in as a sideline by students, it generates a substantial profit, from which the athletes receive no direct benefit. In 1910 Vanderbilt held defending national champion Yale to a scoreless tie.[116]

Vanderbilt’s line coach then was Wallace Wade, who in 1925 coached Alabama to the south’s first Rose Bowl victory. Yet others have countered that the increased number of games has increased exposure and revenue for a greater number of schools, and see it as a positive development.[146]

The 1930s saw growth in the passing game. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. However, after a few years, the school began to feel the isolation of its newly adopted sport, which was not spreading as many had hoped. In the post-season, if the teams are still tied, teams will play additional overtime periods until either team scores.)

Extra point tries are attempted from the three-yard line. Bradbury Robinson, playing for visionary coach Eddie Cochems at Saint Louis University, threw the first legal pass in a September 5, 1906, game against Carroll College at Waukesha. Handbook of Southern Intercollegiate Track and Field Athletics. “Two-point conversion turns 50.” The NCAA News. When Heisman left Tech after 1919, his shift was still employed by protege William Alexander.

Ice hockey




Canadian football, which parallels American football, is played by collegiate teams in Canada under the auspices of Canadian Interuniversity Sport. The resultant collisions often led to serious injuries and sometimes even death.[93] Georgia fullback Richard Von Albade Gammon notably died on the field from concussions received against Virginia in 1897, causing Georgia, Georgia Tech, and Mercer to suspend their football programs.

College Football Playoff

Main article: College Football Playoff

9 Controversy

10 College football outside the United States

11 Awards

12 See also

13 References

14 Further notes

15 External links

15.1 Statistics

15.2 Rules

15.3 Maps

Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor

Although rules for the high school, college, and NFL games are generally consistent, there are several minor differences. The last team from the non-AQ ranks to reach a BCS bowl game in the BCS era was Northern Illinois in 2012, which played in (and lost) the 2013 Orange Bowl.

Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor

Ice hockey



On 25 December 1894, Amos Alonzo Stagg’s Chicago Maroons agreed to play Camp’s Stanford football team in San Francisco in the first postseason intersectional contest, foreshadowing the modern bowl game.[66][67] Future president Herbert Hoover was Stanford’s student financial manager.[68] Chicago won 24 to 4.[69] Stanford won a rematch in Los Angeles on December 29 by 12 to 0.[70]


Hall of Champions


A college football game between Texas Tech and Navy

American college football

As professional football became a national television phenomenon, college football did as well. ISBN 0-9648244-7-7.

^ a b Libby, Brian. Football: The Ivy League Origins of an American Obsession. Associated Press. Inside”) and Glenn Davis (known as “Mr. The team leading after both possessions is declared the winner. In 1887, game time was set at two halves of 45 minutes each. McGill

Map of NAIA

Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional “mob football” played in England. ISBN 978-0873970556.

^ “Harvard Football Timeline”. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2012.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to College football.

NCAA Division I Football Championship[151] – playoff for determining the national champion at the second highest level of college football, Division I FCS, from 1978 to present.

NCAA Division I FCS Consensus Mid-Major Football National Championship – awarded by poll from 2001- to 2007 for a subset of the second highest level of play in college football, FCS.


The first intercollegiate game in the state of Vermont happened on November 6, 1886 between Dartmouth and Vermont at Burlington, Vermont. Its result was “a great surprise to the sporting world.”[117] Commodore fans celebrated by throwing some 3,000 seat cushions onto the field. Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent.

NCAA football official site

Composite television schedule of NCAA football games


College Football at d1sportsnet.com

College Football at Sports-Reference.com

Stassen College Football, comprehensive college football database

College Football Data Warehouse

Gridiron History


NCAA Football 2011 and 2012 Rules and Interpretations


Google Map of Division II Football Programs

Map of FBS Teams and Conferences

Knute Rockne

Field hockey


Further elated by the excitement of McGill’s version of football, Harvard challenged its closest rival, Yale, to which the Bulldogs accepted. It took place at Hamilton Park in New Haven and was the first game in New England. There was no limit to the number of players, but there were typically ten to fifteen per side. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

“NFL History by Decade: 1869-1910.” National Football League. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 20

^ “WorldCat entry for Football for Coaches and Players”. (Only two stadiums owned by U.S. Pop Warner’s Pittsburgh Panthers were also undefeated, but declined a challenge by Heisman to a game. Retrieved June 11, 2011.

^ “NCAA Division I Football Championship”. From 1980 to 2008, an additional 20 bowl games were added to the schedule.[144][145] Some have criticized this growth, claiming that the increased number of games has diluted the significance of playing in a bowl game. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 16

^ Men’s Intercollegiate Athletic Department of the University of Minnesota (1981). During this streak, Michigan scored 2,831 points while allowing only 40.[35]

Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor

Partly as a compromise between both bowl game and playoff supporters, the NCAA created the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) in 1998 in order to create a definitive National Championship game for college football. Leggett, based on the Football Association’s first set of rules, which were an early attempt by the former pupils of England’s public schools, to unify the rules of their public schools games and create a universal and standardized set of rules for the game of football and bore little resemblance to the American game which would be developed in the following decades. Bill Traughber. (Audio help)

More spoken articles

The Big Game between Stanford and California was played as rugby union from 1906 to 1914.

November 1890 was an active time in the sport. Georgia Tech, led by Heisman protege William Alexander, gave the dream and wonder team its only loss, and the next year were national and Rose Bowl champions. Joseph M. The Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association (SIAA) was founded on December 21, 1894, by Dr. Though no longer a player, he remained a fixture at annual rules meetings for most of his life, and he personally selected an annual All-American team every year from 1889 through 1924. Possessions alternate with each overtime, until one team leads the other at the end of the overtime. p. 5.

^ A Ghastly Holocaust: Football Spectators Plunged into Molten Glass, The (Adelaide) Advertiser, (Friday 11 January 1901), p.6.

^ Twenty Score Persons Make Awful Plunge: Seventeen People Meet Most Awful Death: Two San Jose Men Die Amid Sizzling Shrieking Human Mass in Collapsed Factory at Big Game, The (San Jose) Evening News, (Friday 30 November 1900), p.1, p.5.

^ Through a Roof to Death, The (Crawfordsville) Daily News-Review, (Friday, 30 November 1900), p.2.

^ Spectators Fell Into Molten Glass: Thirteen Dead, One Hundred Injured by Collapse of a Roof Overlooking the Stanford-Berkeley Game at San Francisco, The (Spokane) Spokesman-Review, (Friday 30 November 1900), p.1.

^ Death Reaps a Dread Harvest of Lives and Plunges City into Gloom, The San Francisco Call, (Friday, 30 November 1900), p.2.

^ Eskanazi, J., “Sudden Death: Boys Fell to Their Doom in S.F.’s Forgotten Disaster” San Francisco Weekly News, 15 August 2012

^ a b “Timeline”. Several major rivalries date from this time period.

The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics has jurisdiction over more than 80 college football teams, mostly in the midwest.

The National Junior College Athletic Association has jurisdiction over two-year institutions. The champions of these six conferences, along with two “at-large” selections, were invited to play in the four bowl games. Colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition, housing, and books.[2]

Homosexuality in American football

List of defunct college football teams

List of defunct college football conferences

List of historically significant college football games

List of sports attendance figures

Sports injury

1906 St. A (October 1913 – March 1914). The new NCAA rule applies to penalties on both sides of the ball.

Players lined up outside the tackle box–more specifically, those lined up more than 7 yards from the center–will now be allowed to block below the waist only if they are blocking straight ahead or toward the nearest sideline.

On placekicks, no offensive lineman can now be engaged by more than two defensive players. Nixon, also the school’s second captain. As reasons for the change, the school cited rule change back to American football, the overwhelming desire of students and supporters to play American football, interest in playing other East Coast and Midwest schools, and a patriotic desire to play an “American” game.[87] California’s return to American football increased the pressure on Stanford to also change back in order to maintain the rivalry. “Why California Likes Rugby”. Sumner (1990). It was during Rockne’s tenure that the annual Notre Dame-University of Southern California rivalry began. The two-point conversion was not implemented in the NFL until 1994, but it had been previously used in the old American Football League (AFL) before it merged with the NFL in 1970.

The defensive team may score two points on a point-after touchdown attempt by returning a blocked kick, fumble, or interception into the opposition’s end zone. The NFL has a similar rule in the final minute of the half, but it applies only to specified violations against the offensive team. Retrieved 2012-10-22.

^ “Parke H. “John Franklin Crowell, Methodism, and the Football Controversy at Trinity College, 1887-1894″ (PDF). Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ “Kickoffs from 30 yard line could create more returns, injuries”. September 14, 1923.

^ cf. It is still usually regarded as the first game of college football.[3][6][7][8] The game was played at a Rutgers field. Augusta Computer Services. Rutgers Through The Years. The man with the ball could be tackled, although hitting, tripping, “hacking” (shin-kicking) and other unnecessary roughness was prohibited. In 1918, the rules on eligible receivers were loosened to allow eligible players to catch the ball anywhere on the field–previously strict rules were in place allowing passes to only certain areas of the field.[103] Scoring rules also changed during this time: field goals were lowered to three points in 1909[7] and touchdowns raised to six points in 1912.[104]

Heisman shift

The situation came to a head in 1905 when there were 19 fatalities nationwide. p. 3.

^ “Grantland Rice Tells Of Greatest Thrill In Years Of Watching Sport”. The rules committee legalized the forward pass instead. The high school won 24 to 0.[59]

Football teams in Division I are further divided into the Bowl Subdivision (consisting of the largest programs) and the Championship Subdivision. The trophy recognizes the nation’s “most outstanding” college football player and has become one of the most coveted awards in all of American sports.[134]

Power Five – Five of the six AQ conferences of the BCS era, specifically the ACC, Big Ten, Big 12, Pac-12, and SEC. Retrieved 2006-11-29.

^ “1872 Rutgers Scarlet Knights Schedule and Results”. Retrieved 2011-10-06.

^ Steven Salzberg, “Football is corrupting America’s universities: it needs to go”, Forbes, November 26, 2011, http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevensalzberg/2011/11/26/football-is-corrupting-americas-universities-it-needs-to-go/

^ Jay Schalin, “Time for universities to punt football”, Washington Times, September 1, 2011, http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/sep/1/time-for-universities-to-punt-football/?page=all

^ Laura Pappano, “How Big-Time Sports Ate College Life”, New York Times, January 20, 2012.

^ Jonah Newman, “Coaches, Not Presidents, Top Public-College Pay List”, Chronicle of Higher Education, May 16, 2014, http://chronicle.com/blogs/data/2014/05/16/coaches-not-presidents-top-public-college-pay-list/

^ One reference among many: Walt Bogdanich, “A Star Player Accused, and a Flawed Rape Investigation”, New York Times, April 16, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/04/16/sports/errors-in-inquiry-on-rape-allegations-against-fsu-jameis-winston.html

^ Gregg Doyel, “Time to pay college football players — changing times, money say so”, CBS Sports, September 25, 2013, http://www.cbssports.com/general/writer/gregg-doyel/23838595/its-time-pay-college-football-players—-changing-times-money-say-so

^ Rod Gilmore, “College football players deserve pay for play”, ESPN College Football, January 17, 2007, http://sports.espn.go.com/ncf/columns/story?id=2733624

^ Taylor Branch, “The Shame of College Sports”, The Atlantic, October, 2011, http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2011/10/the-shame-of-college-sports/308643/

^ Ben Strauss and Marc Tracy, “N.C.A.A. The Walter Camp Football Foundation continues to select All-American teams in his honor.[17]

Early games

Main article: 1869 college football season



and championships

See also

On November 23, 1876, representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit House in Springfield, Massachusetts to standardize a new code of rules based on the rugby game first introduced to Harvard by McGill University in 1874. Sports Reference.com. Harts had left to prospect for gold in the Arctic.[59][60] Organized football was first played in the territory on November 29, 1894 between the Oklahoma City Terrors and Oklahoma City High School. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. “College Football in Kansas”. The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada.

Pacific Coast

In 1906 Vanderbilt defeated Carlisle 4 to 0, the result of a Bob Blake field goal.[115][116] In 1907 Vanderbilt fought Navy to a 6 to 6 tie. December 27, 1892. On November 25, 1911 Kansas and Missouri played the first homecoming football game.[107] The game was “broadcast” play-by-play over telegraph to at least 1,000 fans in Lawrence, Kansas.[108] It ended in a 3-3 tie. 40: 717-724. Pitt won 21-13.[109] On October 28, 1922, Princeton and Chicago played the first game to be nationally broadcast on radio. Retrieved April 4, 2011.

^ “College Football Games”. The system still did not include the Big Ten, Pac-10, or the Rose Bowl, and thus still lacked the legitimacy of a true national championship.[145][147] However, one positive side effect is that if there were three teams at the end of the season vying for a national title, but one of them was a Pac-10/Big Ten team bound to the Rose Bowl, then there would be no difficulty in deciding which teams to place in the Bowl Alliance “national championship” bowl; if the Pac-10/Big Ten team won the Rose Bowl and finished with the same record as whichever team won the other bowl game, they could have a share of the national title. The semifinals are hosted by two of a group of six traditional bowl games often called the “New Year’s Six”, with semifinal hosting rotating annually among three pairs of games in the following order: Rose/Sugar, Orange/Cotton, and Fiesta/Peach. How to Scout Football. Retrieved 2007-05-16.

^ Smith, R.A. “The Evolution of School Spirit and Tradition at Oregon State University” (PDF). At-large teams could be chosen from any of the Division I conferences, though only one selection–Utah in 2005–came from a non-BCS affiliated conference. Division I generally consists of the major collegiate athletic powers with larger budgets, more elaborate facilities, and (with the exception of a few conferences such as the Pioneer Football League) more athletic scholarships. pp. 285-311. Overtime for regular season games in the NFL began with the 1974 season. November 27, 1941.

^ “Homecoming 2015″. ISBN 1-57167-116-1. It was also the first scoreless tie in the history of the fledgling sport.[21]Yale football starts the same year and has its first match against Columbia, the nearest college to play football. LA 84 Foundation: 54-57. Retrieved 30 May 2012.

^ “Likes Yost’s Manner: President Jordan of Leland Stanford University Gives His Opinion of the Coach”. Sports Publishing LLC.College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1894

^ College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1894

^ College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1895

^ Forgard, Benjamin. The term “Big Game” was first used in 1900, when it was played on Thanksgiving Day in San Francisco. Retrieved 2012-12-18.

^ “The History of the NCAA”. If the teams remain tied, overtime periods continue, with a coin flip determining the first possession. Retrieved 2016-01-24.

On Thanksgiving Day 1903, a game was scheduled in Montgomery, Alabama between the best teams from each region of the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association for an “SIAA championship game”, pitting Cumberland against Heisman’s Clemson. Since there was no national championship game, the final version of the AP poll was used to determine who was crowned the National Champion of college football.[132]

Harvard quickly took a liking to the rugby game, and its use of the try which, until that time, was not used in American football. In the NFL a player is active until he is tackled or forced down by a member of the opposing team (down by contact).

The clock stops after the offense completes a first down and begins again–assuming it is following a play in which the clock would not normally stop–once the referee says the ball is ready for play. (Unlike in the United States, no junior colleges play football in Canada, and the sanctioning body for junior college athletics in Canada, CCAA, does not sanction the sport.) However, amateur football outside of colleges is played in Canada, such as in the Canadian Junior Football League. As conferences became contractually bound to certain bowl games (a situation known as a tie-in), match-ups that guaranteed a consensus national champion became increasingly rare. Journal of Sport History. Retrieved March 13, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. It is claimed by Georgetown authorities as the game with the first ever “roving center” or linebacker when Percy Given stood up, in contrast to the usual tale of Germany Schulz.[56] The first linebacker in the South is often considered to be Frank Juhan.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about gridiron football played at a collegiate level in the United States. 11 (3): 33.

^ Goldsmith, A. The Panthers, led by freshman Tom Davies, defeated Georgia Tech 32 to 0. pp. 11-13. The try would later evolve into the score known as the touchdown. Also in 1887, two paid officials–a referee and an umpire–were mandated for each game. Although before the mid-1920s most national powers came from the Northeast or the Midwest, the trend changed when several teams from the South and the West Coast achieved national success. Committee Urges Football Playoff”. All of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities. Each champion of these conferences is assured of a spot in a New Year’s Six bowl, though not necessarily in a semifinal game. The University of Denver and the University of Utah joined the RMAC in 1910. Pennsylvania”. NFL Enterprises LLC. Under the current playoff structure, the top eight teams are all seeded, and receive a bye week in the first round. These deaths could be attributed to the mass formations and gang tackling that characterized the sport in its early years.

Kickoff during the 1916 Colorado – Utah game

Don Hutson in 1940.

1.5 Violence, formation of NCAA

1.6 Modernization and innovation (1906-1930)

1.6.1 Rise of the South Heisman shift Notable intersectional games


Athletic directors




In 1864, at Trinity College, also a college of the University of Toronto, F. 16 Stanford”. pp. A3.

^ Alex Lynn (November 25, 1906). It also became increasingly violent. The two competing sanctioning bodies have some overlap, and several clubs are members of both organizations.

The Collegiate Sprint Football League governs nine teams, all in the northeast. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. The annual Big Game between Stanford and California continued as rugby, with the winner invited by the British Columbia Rugby Union to a tournament in Vancouver over the Christmas holidays, with the winner of that tournament receiving the Cooper Keith Trophy.[87][88][89]

Rutgers was first to extend the reach of the game. Reading Eagle. Nixon (1898-12-16). “Gridiron gridlock: Citing research, Tufts claims football history is on its side”. That game was so lopsided that the game was not played annually until 1916, when the Tournament of Roses decided to reattempt the postseason game. Retrieved March 24, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. April 15, 2011. Accessed March 11, 2015

^ Will Perry (1974). p. 64.

^ “Spotlight Athletics:”. Nixon, Silver & Gold, December 16, 1898[90]

The first nighttime football game was played in Mansfield, Pennsylvania on September 28, 1892 between Mansfield State Normal and Wyoming Seminary and ended at halftime in a 0-0 tie.[29] The Army-Navy game of 1893 saw the first documented use of a football helmet by a player in a game. Passing numbers dropped from an average of 18.9 attempts in 1951 to 13.6 attempts in 1955, while teams averaged just shy of 50 running plays per game. “A Look Back at High School Football in 1900s Decade”.

^ Triumph Books. Kansas Historical Quarterly. 2006-2007 Texas Almanac. It ended when Stanford requested and Michigan agreed to end it with 8 minutes on the clock. Retrieved 2007-06-04.

^ “President Eliot on Football.” The School Journal, Volume 70, United Education Company, New York, Chicago, and Boston, February 18, 1905, p.188.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 16-18

^ Bennett (1976), pp 20

^ Lewis, Guy M. This allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans. On 1 January 1902, Yost’s dominating 1901 Michigan Wolverines football team agreed to play a 3-1-2 team from Stanford University in the inaugural “Tournament East-West football game what is now known as the Rose Bowl Game by a score of 49-0 after Stanford captain Ralph Fisher requested to quit with eight minutes remaining.

Bowl Championship Series

Main article: Bowl Championship Series

See also: NCAA Division I Football Championship

Swimming & Diving



Utilizing the “jump shift” offense, John Heisman’s Georgia Tech Golden Tornado won 222 to 0 over Cumberland on October 7, 1916, at Grant Field in the most lopsided victory in college football history.[114] Tech went on a 33-game winning streak during this period. Saperecom. Mcgill.ca. Nelson. The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics also holds a playoff.




Division III

Map of NCAA Division II




The University of Oregon began playing American football in 1894 and played its first game on March 24, 1894, defeating Albany College 44-3 under head coach Cal Young.[77][78][79] Cal Young left after that first game and J.A. Starting with the third overtime, a one-point PAT field goal after a touchdown is no longer allowed, forcing teams to attempt a two-point conversion after a touchdown. Rather than increase scoring, which had been Camp’s original intent, the rule was exploited to maintain control of the ball for the entire game, resulting in slow, unexciting contests. 2007. “CHC- Vandy Ties Michigan in 1922″.

^ “Alabama vs. John Roberts.

^ Robin Lester (Summer 1991). Reeves had a crude leather helmet made by a shoemaker in Annapolis and wore it in the game after being warned by his doctor that he risked death if he continued to play football after suffering an earlier kick to the head.[30]



By 1873, the college students playing football had made significant efforts to standardize their fledgling game. The Big East split into two leagues in 2013; the schools that did not play FBS football reorganized as a new non-football Big East Conference, while the FBS member schools that remained in the original structure joined with several new members and became the American Athletic Conference. The first of these happened on November 11, 1876 in Philadelphia and was the first intercollegiate game in the state of Pennsylvania.

The Virginia Cavaliers (orange and blue home uniforms) play against the Penn State Nittany Lions (all-white away uniforms) in 2012 in Scott Stadium.

1904 Vanderbilt team in action.

Heisman Trophy

Maxwell Award

Walter Camp Award

Outland Trophy

Associated Press Player of the Year

Johnny Rodgers Award

Fred Biletnikoff Award

Lou Groza Award

Lombardi Award

The following was taken from the Silver & Gold newspaper of December 16, 1898. But no record has been found of the score of this contest. In 2009, Boise State played TCU in the Fiesta Bowl, the first time two schools from non-BCS conferences played each other in a BCS bowl game. Football’s Greatest Coaches. Retrieved March 7, 2015.

^ “The Football Game That Changed the South”. This article incorporates text from the McGill University Gazette (April 1874), two issues of The Montreal Gazette (14 May and 19 May 1874). Retrieved 2009-10-11.

The National Collegiate Athletic Association. In the first two seasons of the CFP, the Group of Five has yet to place a team in a semifinal. This game’s violence caused such an outcry that no games at all were played in 1871. President Theodore Roosevelt reportedly threatened to shut down the game if drastic changes were not made.[94] However, the threat by Roosevelt to eliminate football is disputed by sports historians. New York Times. They are then invited to a bowl game based on their conference ranking and the tie-ins that the conference has to each bowl game. Harvard, however, preferred to play a rougher version of football called “the Boston Game” in which the kicking of a round ball was the most prominent feature though a player could run with the ball, pass it, or dribble it (known as “babying”). Mary’s, Santa Clara, and USC (in 1911).[87] However, due to the perception that West Coast football was inferior to the game played on the East Coast anyway, East Coast and Midwest teams shrugged off the loss of the teams and continued playing American football.[87] With no nationwide movement, the available pool of rugby teams to play remained small.[87] The schools scheduled games against local club teams and reached out to rugby union powers in Australia, New Zealand, and especially, due to its proximity, Canada. Stanford: Home of Champions. College Football Data Warehouse. The Wolverines: A Story of Michigan Football. Grantland Rice cited this event as the greatest thrill he ever witnessed in his years of watching sports.[112] Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin in Spalding’s Football Guide’s summation of the season in the SIAA wrote “The standing. Boston Daily Globe. p. 21. “Old Division Football, The Indigenous Mob Soccer Of Dartmouth College (pdf)” (PDF). For the first time, it included all major conferences (ACC, Big East, Big 12, Big Ten, Pac-10, and SEC) and four major bowl games (Rose, Orange, Sugar and Fiesta). NCAA.com. Washington and Lee won 4-2.[38] Some industrious students of the two schools organized a game for October 23, 1869 – but it was rained out.[39] Students of the University of Virginia were playing pickup games of the kicking-style of football as early as 1870, and some accounts even claim it organized a game against Washington and Lee College in 1871; but no record has been found of the score of this contest. Heisman Trophy. The Division I National Championship game is held in Frisco, Texas.

2 Official rules and notable rule distinctions

3 Organization

4 Coaching

5 National championships

6 Team maps

7 Playoff games

8 Bowl games

8.1 Division I FBS National Championship Games

The longtime resistance to a playoff system at the FBS level finally ended with the creation of the College Football Playoff (CFP) beginning with the 2014 season. National Collegiate Athletic Association: 71-75.

^ Davis, Parke H. October 3, 2010.

^ a b c d e f g h i j Park, Roberta J (Winter 1984). Warner picked up the trick and later used it at Cornell against Penn State in 1897.[50] He then used it in 1903 at Carlisle against Harvard and garnered national attention.

Harvard vs. Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 39

^ Vancil (2000), pp 41-45

^ MacCambridge (1999) pp 172

^ MacCambridge (1999), pp 171

^ Bennett (1976) pp 56

^ Barnidge, Tom (2000). Pantops Academy November 13, 1887 as the first game in Virginia.

During World War II, college football players enlisted in the armed forces, some playing in Europe during the war. In 1914, the first roughing-the-passer penalty was implemented. (California’s two-year institutions are not under NJCAA jurisdiction and only compete for state championships.)

Club football, a sport in which student clubs run the teams instead of the colleges themselves, is overseen by two organizations: the National Club Football Association and the Intercollegiate Club Football Federation. p. 14.

^ Southern Inter-Collegiate Athletic Association (PDF). Consisting mostly of schools from Texas, the conference saw back-to-back national champions with Texas Christian University (TCU) in 1938 and Texas A&M in 1939.[128][129] The Pacific Coast Conference (PCC), a precursor to the Pac-12 Conference (Pac-12), had its own back-to-back champion in the University of Southern California which was awarded the title in 1931 and 1932.[128] The Southeastern Conference (SEC) formed in 1932 and consisted mostly of schools in the Deep South.[130] As in previous decades, the Big Ten continued to dominate in the 1930s and 1940s, with Minnesota winning 5 titles between 1934 and 1941, and Michigan (1933, 1947, and 1948) and Ohio State (1942) also winning titles.[128][131]

In 1998, a new system was put into place called the Bowl Championship Series. ESPN.com. Doc Blanchard (known as “Mr. In 1966, rugby league introduced a four-tackle rule (changed in 1972 to a six-tackle rule) based on Camp’s early down-and-distance rules.

Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as “football”, played at public schools in England in the mid-19th century. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2009-02-18.

^ Nelson (1994), pp 48

^ “Big Ten History”. College Football Encyclopedia. The motion was rejected at that time but passed in 1880. Also, a complex system of human polls, computer rankings, and strength of schedule calculations was instituted to rank schools. No minor league farm organizations exist in American football. Retrieved April 6, 2011.

^ “The History of Homecoming”. He also lacked the authority to abolish football and was, in fact, actually a fan of the sport and wanted to preserve it. The term “bowl” originates from the shape of the Rose Bowl stadium in Pasadena, California, which was built in 1923 and resembled the Yale Bowl, built in 1915. Retrieved 2007-05-16.

^ “Notre Dame Football :: UND.COM :: The Official Site of Notre Dame Athletics”. reprinted from Official Super Bowl XXXIII Game Program.

^ Vancil (2000) pp 46-48

^ Vancil (2000), pp 56

^ Bennett (1976), Appendix pp 209-217

^ a b Call, Jeff (December 20, 2006). April 27, 1924.

^ Dan McGugin (1907). Los Angeles Herald. Baylor Athletics (Baylor University). Dartmouth played its own version called “Old division football”, the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s. A Harvard tradition known as “Bloody Monday” began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. The Walter Camp Foundation. The Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called “Football Fightum”, for whom they conducted funeral rites. p. 232.

^ David M. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ White, Gordon (January 8, 1979). Throwing or carrying the ball was not allowed, but there was plenty of physical contact between players. Eugene, Oregon: McCann Communications Corp. British Columbia Rugby Union. December 30, 1894. The Chicago Daily Tribune called it “the first rugby-football game to be played west of the Alleghenies.”[31] Other Midwestern schools soon followed suit, including the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, and the University of Minnesota. It was a recollection of the birth of Colorado football written by one of CU’s original gridders, John C. Retrieved December 27, 2011.

^ Sciullo Jr, Sam, ed. NFL.com. Ralph Turtinen, ed. Atlanta, Ga.: Whitman Publishing, LLC. Dubbed “The First Greatest Game of the Century,”[37] broke Michigan’s 56-game unbeaten streak and marked the end of the “Point-a-Minute” years.

Camp’s new scrimmage rules revolutionized the game, though not always as intended. Stetson beat Florida Agricultural College at Lake City, one of the four forerunners of the University of Florida, 6-0, in a game played as part of the Jacksonville Fair.[55]




^ Evans, Harold (August 1940). The CFP is a Plus-One system, a concept that became popular as a BCS alternative following controversies in 2003 and 2004. This arrangement is contractually locked in until the 2026 season.





games 1930-2010[144]


# of games




















College football playoff consist of 2 bowls and a champ game

Walter Camp: Father of American football

Division II

College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. Retrieved October 20, 2011.

^ John C. Spectators from Princeton also carried the game back home, where it quickly became the most popular version of football.[3]

New formations and play sets continued to be developed. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was (Sir) William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school. p. D5.

^ a b “College Bowl Games”. Two teams of 25 players attempted to score by kicking the ball into the opposing team’s goal. Heisman pressed hardest for Cumberland to get the claim of champion. This game is commonly referred to as “the game that changed the south.”[120] Wade followed up the next season with an undefeated record and Rose Bowl tie. It was agreed that the No.1 and No.2 ranked teams gave up their prior bowl tie-ins and were guaranteed to meet in the national championship game, which rotated between the three participating bowls. OSU Alumni Association. Current Events, 00113492, 11/14/2011, Vol. Tales from the Oregon Ducks Sideline. Incidentally, rugby was to make a similar change to its scoring system 10 years later.[16]

The first USC football squad (1888). ABC Sports began broadcasting a national Game of the Week in 1966, bringing key matchups and rivalries to a national audience for the first time.[141]



This audio file was created from a revision of the “College football” article dated 2006-05-29, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. The game featured no uniforms, no positions, and the rules were formulated before the game.[44]

An 1894 football game in Staunton, Virginia between VMI and Virginia Tech.

Camp was central to several more significant rule changes that came to define American football. CUBuffs.com reprint of Silver & Gold article. Among his other innovations are modern blocking schemes, the three-point stance, and the reverse play.[121] The youth football league, Pop Warner Little Scholars, was named in his honor.

Division II and Division III of the NCAA also participate in their own respective playoffs, crowning national champions at the end of the season. Retrieved April 12, 2011.

^ “Timeline of Yale Football”. Because the college officials could not agree upon a change in rules, it was decided over the course of several subsequent meetings that an external governing body should be responsible. November 22, 1893.

^ a b Migdol, Gary (1997). “College Football”. Nine out of ten Heisman Trophy winners in the 1950s were runners. The first western team to travel east was the 1881 Michigan team, which played at Harvard, Yale and Princeton.[32][33] The nation’s first college football league, the Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives (also known as the Western Conference), a precursor to the Big Ten Conference, was founded in 1895.[34]

The Big Game between Stanford and California is the oldest college football rivalry in the West. These down-and-distance rules, combined with the establishment of the line of scrimmage, transformed the game from a variation of rugby football into the distinct sport of American football.[16]



Swimming & Diving



A pass is ruled complete if one of the receiver’s feet is inbounds at the time of the catch. Division III institutions also field teams, but do not offer any scholarships.

The first documented gridiron football match was a game played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9, 1861. Students and alumni began to clamor for a return to American football to allow wider intercollegiate competition.[87] The pressure at rival California was stronger (especially as the school had not been as successful in the Big Game as they had hoped), and in 1915 California returned to American football. The next year Vanderbilt fought Michigan to a scoreless tie at the inaugural game at Dudley Field (now Vanderbilt Stadium), the first stadium in the South made exclusively for college football. The annual National Champion in the Football Bowl Subdivision is then instead traditionally determined by a vote of sports writers and other non-players.

1.6.2 Coaches of the era Glenn “Pop” Warner Knute Rockne

From a regional to a national sport (1930-1958)

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Virginia and the south on November 2, 1873 in Lexington between Washington and Lee and VMI. Atlanta Constitution. The Kingsport Times. Retrieved 2010-01-26.

^ Meacham, Scott (2006). Lawrence Daily Journal. 2007-02-14. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “100 years ago: Football fans enjoy mechanized reproduction of KU-MU game”. Between 1890 and 1905, 330 college athletes died as a direct result of injuries sustained on the football field. Echoes of Oklahoma Sooners Football: The Greatest Stories Ever Told. The President’s sons were also playing football at the college and secondary levels at the time.[95]

January 30, 1892 saw the first football game played in the Deep South when the Georgia Bulldogs defeated Mercer 50-0 at Herty Field.

Led by coach Fielding H. Sportswriter Grantland Rice helped popularize the sport with his poetic descriptions of games and colorful nicknames for the game’s biggest players, including Notre Dame’s “Four Horsemen” backfield and Fordham University’s linemen, known as the “Seven Blocks of Granite”.[105]

The 1950s saw the rise of yet more dynasties and power programs. Watterson, “Inventing Modern Football”, American Heritage magazine, June 1988

^ Vancil (2000), pp 17

^ Vancil (2000) pp 22

^ “NFL History 1911-1920″. The Rose Bowl included Roy Riegels’ wrong-way run. Lawrence Journal-World. (1969). Bernstein. First, Vanderbilt; second, Sewanee, a might good second;” and that Aubrey Lanier “came near winning the Vanderbilt game by his brilliant dashes after receiving punts.”[113]Bob Blake threw the final pass to center Stein Stone, catching it near the goal amongst defenders. The Bowl Subdivision has historically not used an organized tournament to determine its champion, and instead teams compete in post-season bowl games. Every play is subject to booth review with coaches only having one challenge. being afflicted with a super-abundance of penned up energy, or perhaps having recently drifted from under the parental wing and delighting in their newly found freedom, decided among other wild schemes, to form an athletic association. August 22, 1900. Teams had been scaled down from 25 players to 20. Davis described the period between 1869 and 1875 as the ‘Pioneer Period’; the years 1876-93 he called the ‘Period of the American Intercollegiate Football Association’; and the years 1894-1933 he dubbed the ‘Period of Rules Committees and Conferences’.[5]

Old “Football Fightum” had been resurrected at Harvard in 1872, when Harvard resumed playing football. Church took over the coaching position in the fall for the rest of the season. open access publication - free to read

^ “Mansfield, Pennsylvania – It happened one night – First Football under lights – Mansfield PA 1892″. The number grew to eleven in 1976. Evolvements of Early American Foot Ball: Through the 1890/91 Season. Originally, the snap was executed with the foot of the center. This situation continued until 1984, when several schools brought a suit under the Sherman Antitrust Act; the Supreme Court ruled against the NCAA and schools are now free to negotiate their own television deals. Ingrassia, The Rise of Gridiron University: Higher Education’s Uneasy Alliance with Big-Time Football. p. 128.

^ Langum, David J. The Dallas Morning News. In 1995, the Coalition was replaced by the Bowl Alliance, which reduced the number of bowl games to host a national championship game to three–the Fiesta, Sugar, and Orange Bowls–and the participating conferences to five–the ACC, SEC, Southwest, Big Eight, and Big East. The game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges.

The University of Colorado began playing American football in 1890. open access publication - free to read

^ Gardner (1996)

^ Dupont, Kevin Paul (September 23, 2004). Football came back in 1872, when Columbia played Yale for the first time. 1, 2007, ISBN 1-4042-1919-6.

^ Bailey, John Wendell (1924). Wilkinson and Hayes, along with Robert Neyland of Tennessee, oversaw a revival of the running game in the 1950s. For the current season of Championship Subdivision play, see 2016 NCAA Division I FCS football season.

The establishment of the CFP followed a tumultuous period of conference realignment in Division I. Retrieved 2010-01-26.

^ “The History of Walter Camp”. Ivy League Rugby Conference (2009-01-31). 2007. Stevens lost to Columbia, but beat both New York University and City College of New York during the following year.

No sport is wholesome in which ungenerous or mean acts which easily escape detection contribute to victory.

The 1905 Utah football team

The BCS selection committee used a complicated, and often controversial, computer system to rank all Division 1-FBS teams and the top two teams at the end of the season played for the National Championship. Retrieved January 14, 2013.

^ Alan Gould (January 24, 1931). As most of these players had eligibility left on their college careers, some of them returned to college at West Point, bringing Army back-to-back national titles in 1944 and 1945 under coach Red Blaik. Honus Craig then ran in the winning touchdown.







At the Division I FCS level, the teams participate in a 24-team playoff (most recently expanded from 20 teams in 2013) to determine the national championship. Harvard University Sports Information Office. In the NFL both feet must be inbounds.

A player is considered down when any part of his body other than the feet or hands touches the ground or when the ball carrier is tackled or otherwise falls and loses possession of the ball as he contacts the ground with any part of his body, with the sole exception of the holder for field goal and extra point attempts. The Boston Globe.

^ a b c d e f “Camp and His Followers: American Football 1876-1889″ (PDF). Jarvis Field was at the time a patch of land at the northern point of the Harvard campus, bordered by Everett and Jarvis Streets to the north and south, and Oxford Street and Massachusetts Avenue to the east and west. The NCAA Football Rules Committee determines the playing rules for Division I (both Bowl and Championship Subdivisions), II, and III games (the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) is a separate organization, but uses the NCAA rules).


See also: History of American football and History of Canadian football

Started in the 2014 season, four Division I FBS teams are selected at the end of regular season to compete in a playoff for the FBS national championship. The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. Instead, it has a series of postseason “bowl games”. “1958 Colts remember the ‘Greatest Game’”. As a result, the official Division I National Champion is the winner of the Football Championship Subdivision, as it is the highest level of football with an NCAA-administered championship tournament.




Helping Georgia Tech’s claim to a title in 1917, the Auburn Tigers held undefeated, Chic Harley-led Big Ten champion Ohio State to a scoreless tie the week before Georgia Tech beat the Tigers 68 to 7. Beats Throop By a Score of 22 to 12 at Pasadena”. August 17, 1999.

^ Alexander M. In the NFL, the same foul would result in a penalty on the conversion attempt or ensuing kickoff, at the option of the non-penalized team.

If a team is penalized in the final minute of a half and the penalty causes the clock to stop, the opposing team now has the right to have 10 seconds run off the clock in addition to the yardage penalty. “From Football to Rugby–and Back, 1906-1919: The University of California-Stanford University Response to the “Football Crisis of 1905″” (PDF). College Football Historical Society. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “History of the Football Helmet” from Past Time Sports. “Tiny Maxwell and the Crisis of 1905: The Making of a Gridiron Myth” (PDF). This college rule was added in 1988. From 1901 to 1905, Michigan had a 56-game undefeated streak that included a 1902 trip to play in the first college football bowl game, which later became the Rose Bowl Game. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ Vancil (2000) pp 24

^ “Marching Band History”. 2.

^ a b “A History of Washington and Lee Athletics”. Athletics were banned at the school in May 1892, but when the strict school president, Benjamin Arnold, died, President John Bloss reversed the ban.[82] Bloss’s son William started the first team, on which he served as both coach and quarterback.[83] The team’s first game was an easy 63-0 defeat over the home team, Albany College.

^ While Still the Nation’s Favorite Sport, Professional Football Drops in Popularity – Baseball and college football are next in popularity at the Harris Interactive website, accessed 28 January 2010.

^ “University of Florida Health Science Center Libraries” (PDF). Rockne and quarterback Gus Dorais made innovative use of the forward pass, still at that point a relatively unused weapon, to defeat Army 35-13 and helped establish the school as a national power. By 1950, three more had joined that number and in 1970, there were still only eight major college bowl games. Retrieved 30 May 2012.

^ Edmonston Jr., George. Dissatisfied with what seemed to him to be a disorganized mob, he proposed his first rule change at the first meeting he attended in 1878: a reduction from fifteen players to eleven. The BCS system was slightly adjusted in 2006, as the NCAA added a fifth game to the series, called the National Championship Game. On the coaching staff of those 1944-1946 Army teams was future Pro Football Hall of Fame coach Vince Lombardi.[131][135]

Charles William Eliot, President of Harvard University (1869-1909) opposing football in 1905.[91]

This system has been challenged often, beginning with an NCAA committee proposal in 1979 to have a four-team playoff following the bowl games.[153] However, little headway was made in instituting a playoff tournament until 2014, given the entrenched vested economic interests in the various bowls. A selection committee of college football experts decides the participating teams. In 1921 Bo McMillin-led Centre upset defending national champion Harvard 6 to 0 in what is widely considered one of the greatest upsets in college football history. Football Immortals. Oklahoma, under coach Bud Wilkinson, won three national titles (1950, 1955, 1956) and all ten Big Eight Conference championships in the decade while building a record 47-game winning streak. of C. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ a b c “BCS Chronology”. open access publication - free to read

^ DeLassus, David. “Princeton Yearly Results (1880-1884)”. Woody Hayes led Ohio State to two national titles, in 1954 and 1957, and dominated the Big Ten conference, winning three Big Ten titles–more than any other school. The team also played exhibition games against two Los Angeles area teams that Stanford does not include in official results.[64][65] Camp returned to the East Coast following the season, then returned to coach Stanford in 1894 and 1895.

Following the introduction of rugby-style rules to American football, Camp became a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where rules were debated and changed. Rutgers University. Journal of Sport History, Vol. In 1936, the Associated Press began its weekly poll of prominent sports writers, ranking all of the nation’s college football teams. The mass plays being now barred, skill on the football field is more in demand than mere weight and strength.

Colorado’s First football team in 1890.

College teams mostly play other similarly sized schools through the NCAA’s divisional system. Some coaches and officials questioned this rule change as it could lead to more injuries to the players as there will likely be more kickoff returns.[148] The rationale for the rule change was to help reduce dead time in the game.[149] The NFL returned its kickoff location to the 35-yard line effective in 2011; college football did not do so until 2012.

Several changes were made to college rules in 2011, all of which differ from NFL practice:[150]If a player is penalized for unsportsmanlike conduct for actions that occurred during a play ending in a touchdown by that team, but before the goal line was crossed, the touchdown will be nullified. Princeton won that game by a score of 8 – 0. Players who became famous for taking advantage of the easier passing game included Alabama end Don Hutson and TCU passer “Slingin” Sammy Baugh.[133]

1895 football game between Auburn and Georgia.

Teams in each of these four divisions are further divided into various regional conferences.

1 History

1.1 Rugby Football in England and Canada

1.2 American college football

1.2.1 Early games

1.2.2 Harvard-McGill (1874)

1.2.3 Harvard-Tufts, Harvard-Yale (1875)

1.2.4 Walter Camp: Father of American football

In 1879, the University of Michigan became the first school west of Pennsylvania to establish a college football team. Archived from the original on June 24, 2007. The WAC, after seeing all but two of its football members leave, dropped football after the 2012 season. sporting event.[76]

One publication claims “The first scouting done in the South was in 1905, when Dan McGugin and Captain Innis Brown, of Vanderbilt went to Atlanta to see Sewanee play Georgia Tech.”[111]Fuzzy Woodruff claims Davidson was the first in the south to throw a legal forward pass in 1906. Retrieved 2008-10-06.

^ a b c Bennett (1976), pp 20-21

^ “ESPN.com: Top N. The Strode Publishers. The Southwest Athletic Conference had been founded in 1915. Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College. Organized competition in American football also exists at the collegiate level in Mexico (ONEFA), the UK (British Universities American Football League), Japan (Japan American Football Association, Koshien Bowl), and South Korea (Korea American Football Association).

On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University (then known as the College of New Jersey) in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football. Paul Hornung, Notre Dame quarterback, did, however, win the Heisman in 1956, becoming the only player from a losing team ever to do so.[136][137]

The 10 FBS conferences are formally and popularly divided into two groups:

In 1907 at Champaign, Illinois Chicago and Illinois played in the first game to have a halftime show featuring a marching band.[106] Chicago won 42-6. A year later, the rules were changed to allow tackling below the waist, and in 1889, the officials were given whistles and stopwatches.[16]

As a result of the 1905-1906 reforms, mass formation plays became illegal and forward passes legal. The CFP is a four-team tournament whose participants are chosen and seeded by a 13-member selection committee. As a result of this meeting, the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States was formed in 1906. Rutgers won by a score of six to four. Outside”) both won the Heisman Trophy, in 1945 and 1946 respectively. 16: 583. Before they were nicknamed the “Trojans”, they were known as the USC Methodists.

1904 saw big coaching hires in the south: Mike Donahue at Auburn, John Heisman at Georgia Tech, and Dan McGugin at Vanderbilt were all hired that year. Walter, who would enroll at Yale the next year, was torn between an admiration for Harvard’s style of play and the misery of the Yale defeat, and became determined to avenge Yale’s defeat. open access publication - free to read

^ Patrick Dorsey (September 23, 2011). The game features prominently in Vanderbilt’s history.[118] That same year, Alabama upset Penn 9 to 7.[119]

Durung 12 seasons of playing rugby union, Stanford was remarkably successful: the team had three undefeated seasons, three one-loss seasons, and an overall record of 94 wins, 20 losses, and 3 ties for a winning percentage of .816. The coalition also excluded the Rose Bowl, arguably the most prestigious game in the nation, and two major conferences–the Pac-10 and Big Ten–meaning that it had limited success. Outing. The History of Sports. Retrieved March 27, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. The Lions traveled from New York City to New Brunswick on November 12, 1870 and were defeated by Rutgers 6 to 3. p. 70.

^ Gary Migdol. p. 4.

^ “USC Football Heads To Bay Area To Face No. Accessed 29 January 2007.

^ a b Parke H. Princeton Alumni Weekly. p. 15 – via Google books. NCAA.org. It was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J. Consequently, Stanford is USC’s oldest existing rival.[86] The Big Game between Stanford and Cal on November 11, 1905 was the first played at Stanford Field, with Stanford winning 12-5.[63]

Rise of the South

At the Division I FBS level, teams must earn the right to be bowl eligible by winning at least 6 games during the season (teams that play 13 games in a season, which is allowed for Hawaii and any of its home opponents, must win 7 games). This “twenty” never played Columbia, but did play twice against Princeton.[24] Princeton won both games 6 to 0. It was his last game as Clemson head coach.[57]

Map of Division I (AA) FCS

The rules committee considered widening the playing field to “open up” the game, but Harvard Stadium (the first large permanent football stadium) had recently been built at great expense; it would be rendered useless by a wider field. 2007. Division II primarily consists of smaller public and private institutions that offer fewer scholarships than those in Division I. p. 95.

^ Ray Dozier. “Teddy Roosevelt’s Role in the 1905 Football Controversy”. San Francisco Chronicle. “Changing seasons: Y. Several times in 1883, Camp tinkered with the scoring rules, finally arriving at four points for a touchdown, two points for kicks after touchdowns, two points for safeties, and five for field goals. In the thirty years from 1950 to 1980, seven bowl games were added to the schedule. Baird as the head football coach for the Michigan Wolverines football team. Tar Heel Times. (1995). A violation will be a 5-yard penalty.




Tom Davies runs against undefeated and unscored upon Georgia Tech in the 1918 game at Forbes Field.








In 1909, the Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference was founded, featuring four members: Colorado, Colorado College, Colorado School of Mines, and Colorado Agricultural College. At the first The Game (as the annual contest between Harvard and Yale came to be named) the future “father of American football” Walter Camp was among the 2000 spectators in attendance. 2007. Though some coaches, such as General Robert Neyland at Tennessee, continued to eschew its use, several rules changes to the game had a profound effect on teams’ ability to throw the ball. “Sports and Freedom: The Rise of Big-Time College Athletics”, New York: Oxford University Press, 1988

^ Infamous 1874 McGill-Harvard game turns 132 at McGill Athletics, published by McGill University (no further authorship information available). With more national venues and increased available revenue, the bowls saw an explosive growth throughout the 1980s and 1990s. “Buff Milestones” (PDF). Archived from the original on October 31, 2009. As part of his single and double wing formations, Warner was one of the first coaches to effectively utilize the forward pass. At the birth of cable television and cable sports networks like ESPN, there were fifteen bowls in 1980. PMID 4903389.

^ Watterson, John (2001). Retrieved September 11, 2012.

^ John Majors. The trophy was designed by sculptor Frank Eliscu and modeled after New York University player Ed Smith. A rematch was played at Princeton a week later under Princeton’s own set of rules (one notable difference was the awarding of a “free kick” to any player that caught the ball on the fly, which was a feature adopted from the Football Association’s rules; the fair catch kick rule has survived through to modern American game). The annual Army-Navy game was suspended from 1894 to 1898 for similar reasons.[92] One of the major problems was the popularity of mass-formations like the flying wedge, in which a large number of offensive players charged as a unit against a similarly arranged defense. “Too many bowl games? Nonsense”. In the Rugby rules of the time, a try only provided the attempt to kick a free goal from the field. Camp’s innovations in the area of point scoring influenced rugby union’s move to point scoring in 1890. This computer system, which factored in newspaper polls, online polls, coaches’ polls, strength of schedule, and various other factors of a team’s season, led to much dispute over whether the two best teams in the country were being selected to play in the National Championship Game.

Playoff games

Several major modern college football conferences rose to prominence during this time period. NCAA. Known as the “Iron Men”, with just 13 men they had a six-day road trip with five shutout wins over Texas A&M; Texas; Tulane; LSU; and Ole Miss.

^ “Ten Yard Rule a Failure” New York Times, December 26, 1905

^ “New Football Rules Tested” Los Angeles Times, December 26, 1905

^ a b “University of Florida Health Science Center Libraries”. If they are successful, they receive two points, if they are not, then they receive zero points. Princeton University students played a game called “ballown” as early as 1820. 2001. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ a b c “NFL History3039-1910″. p. 52. Princeton won 21-18 in a hotly contested game which had Princeton dubbed the “Team of Destiny.”[110]


College football is a controversial institution within American higher education, where the amount of money involved–what people will pay for the entertainment provided–is a corrupting factor within universities that they are usually ill-equipped to deal with.[154][155] According to William E. In Baldwin City, Kansas, on November 22, 1890, college football was first played in the state of Kansas. The wishbone is a run-heavy offense that depends on the quarterback making last second decisions on when and to whom to hand or pitch the ball to. Goddard were playing coaches for the first team which was put together by quarterback Arthur Carroll; who in turn volunteered to make the pants for the team and later became a tailor.[61] USC faced its first collegiate opponent the following year in fall 1889, playing St. It also had the first two players from the Deep South selected first-team All-American in Walker Carpenter and Everett Strupper. 2007. By the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport later known as Rugby football. University of Illinois. Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ “NCAA Football Rules Committee Votes To Restore Plays While Attempting To Maintain Shorter Overall Game Time”. “Section 11–Extra Points.” 2008 Football Statisticians’ Manual. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ Celizic, Mike (December 9, 2006). This allowed the four other BCS bowls to use their normal selection process to select the teams in their games while the top two teams in the BCS rankings would play in the new National Championship Game.

With the growth of bowl games, it became difficult to determine a national champion in a fair and equitable manner. Football, the American intercollegiate game. Retrieved March 24, 2015.

^ “Concise Encyclopedia of Tufts History”.

^ “Penn Football:Origins To 1901″.

^ Mark F. open access publication - free to read

^ a b “Brown Calls Vanderbilt ’06 Best Eleven South Ever Had”. Schaff himself was injured and unable to the play the game, but Yale won the game 3-0 nonetheless. Wallace William Wade’s 1925 Alabama team won the 1926 Rose Bowl after receiving its first national title and William Alexander’s 1928 Georgia Tech team defeated California in the 1929 Rose Bowl. The first team to reach six goals was declared the winner. USC Trojans. 2006. November 27, 2011. Rules were simple, violence and injury were common.[3][4] The violence of these mob-style games led to widespread protests and a decision to abandon them. “N.C.A.A. Selection for the playoffs is determined by a selection committee, although usually a team must have a 7-4 record to even be considered. The inaugural champion was Ohio State University.[152] The College Football Playoff replaced the Bowl Championship Series, which had been used as the selection method to determine the national championship game participants since in the 1998 season.

The first college football game in Oklahoma Territory occurred on November 7, 1895 when the ‘Oklahoma City Terrors’ defeated the Oklahoma Sooners 34 to 0. He led his team to an impressive 105-12-5 record before his premature death in a plane crash in 1931. Georgia’s 1927 “dream and wonder team” defeated Yale for the first time. The American retained the Big East’s automatic BCS bowl bid for the 2013 season, but lost this status in the CFP era.

Coaches of the era

Glenn “Pop” Warner

The system continued to change, as the formula for ranking teams was tweaked from year to year. Later in 1872, Stevens Tech became the fifth school to field a team. February 19, 1911. Outland held an experimental game in Wichita, Kansas that reduced the number of scrimmage plays to earn a first down from four to three in an attempt to reduce injuries.[96] The Los Angeles Times reported an increase in punts and considered the game much safer than regular play but that the new rule was not “conducive to the sport”.[97] In 1906, President Roosevelt organized a meeting among thirteen school leaders at the White House to find solutions to make the sport safer for the athletes. August 2008. Retrieved February 9, 2015.

^ Melvin I. For example, the Big Eight and SEC champions could never meet, since they were contractually bound to different bowl games. Without the Pac-10/Big Ten team bound to a bowl game, it would be difficult to decide which two teams should play for the national title.

The beginnings of the contemporary Southeastern Conference and Atlantic Coast Conference start in 1894. “Yellow Jackets-Cumberland Score Was Record One; Tops the List According to Statistics Compiled Showing All Scores Past the Century Mark”. They remained largely “mob” style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area, often by any means necessary. Both Donahue and McGugin just came from the north that year, Donahue from Yale and McGugin from Michigan, and were among the initial inductees of the College Football Hall of Fame. lumbia joined the series in 1870, and by 1872 several schools were fielding intercollegiate teams, including Yale and Stevens Institute of Technology.[3]

It was voted that the officers constitute a committee to provide uniform suits in which to play what was called “association football”. Professional Football Researchers Association. p. 116.

^ “Princeton-Chicago football game is broadcast across the country”.

^ George Allen. “The Birth of OSU Football”. One conference champion from this group receives a spot in a New Year’s Six game. 256 players are selected annually. William Dudley, a chemistry professor at Vanderbilt.[45] The original members were Alabama, Auburn, Georgia, Georgia Tech, North Carolina, Sewanee, and Vanderbilt. Six major bowl games (the Rose, Sugar, Cotton, Orange, Peach, and Fiesta) rotate on a three-year cycle as semifinal games, with the winners advancing to the College Football Playoff National Championship. Four new bowl games were created: the Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, the Sun Bowl in 1935, and the Cotton Bowl in 1937. reconnects with past, but bowl scene not the same”. p. 5. Archived from the original on April 30, 2007. Modern Canadian football is widely regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. Though some schools play a run-based version of the spread, its most common use is as a passing offense designed to “spread” the field both horizontally and vertically.[143] Some teams have managed to adapt with the times to keep winning consistently. Davis ’93 On Harvard Football”. When a game goes to overtime, each team is given one possession from its opponent’s twenty-five yard line with no game clock, despite the one timeout per period and use of play clock. It is recalled memorably with the phrase “… and on the seventh day they rested.”[51][52]Grantland Rice called them “the most durable football team I ever saw.”[53]




University of Wisconsin football team, 1903




The style of football playing has altered considerably; by the old rules, all men in front of the runner with the ball, were offside, consequently we could not send backs through and break the line ahead of the ball as is done at present. Each year, one of the four bowl games served as a national championship game. The Harvard students took to the rugby rules and adopted them as their own,[3][10][11] The games featured a round ball instead of a rugby-style oblong ball.[11] This series of games represents an important milestone in the development of the modern game of American football.[12][13] In October 1874, the Harvard team once again traveled to Montreal to play McGill in rugby, where they won by three tries.

American football historian Parke H. Following the season, Stanford captain John Whittemore wrote to Yale coach Walter Camp asking him to recommend a coach for Stanford. Prescott Evening Courier.

^ “Ball Under The Jersey”. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ McCann, Michael C. 100 Years of Golden Gopher Football. An invitation was also extended to Los Angeles High School.[62]

Ice hockey



Further notes

“The Invention Of Football”. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. and Pacific Glass Works, fell into the fiery interior of the building when the roof collapsed, resulting in 13 dead and 78 injured.[71][72][73][74][75] On December 4, 1900, the last victim of the disaster (Fred Lilly) died, bringing the death toll to 22; and, to this day, the “Thanksgiving Day Disaster” remains the deadliest accident to kill spectators at a U.S. Its primary restriction is that all players must weigh less than the average college student (that threshold is set, as of 2015, at 172 pounds/78 kg).

The 1894 Harvard-Yale game, known as the “Hampden Park Blood Bath”, resulted in crippling injuries for four players; the contest was suspended until 1897. NFL.com. They decided to play with 15 players on each team. Retrieved 2007-08-23.

^ “Knute Rockne”. College Football Data Warehouse. FOX Sports on MSN. Rather than simply a regional team, Rockne’s “Fighting Irish” became famous for barnstorming and played any team at any location. In 1927, his complex shifts led directly to a rule change whereby all offensive players had to stop for a full second before the ball could be snapped. Journal of Sport History. Another rule, unique to McGill, was to count tries (the act of grounding the football past the opposing team’s goal line; it is important to note that there was no end zone during this time), as well as goals, in the scoring. Notre Dame, one of the biggest passing teams of the decade, saw a substantial decline in success; the 1950s were the only decade between 1920 and 1990 when the team did not win at least a share of the national title. However, both Group of Five teams selected for New Year’s Six bowls (Boise State in 2014 and Houston in 2015) won their games.

Official rules and notable rule distinctions

See also: American football rules



Swimming & Diving



After leaving Yale in 1882, Camp was employed by the New Haven Clock Company until his death in 1925. For the video game series, see NCAA Football series. Retrieved 2008-01-16.

^ A compilation of seven sources:

“History.” 2009 Baylor Football Media Almanac. Therefore, college football is generally considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States; one step ahead of high school competition, and one step below professional competition. It was agreed that two games would be played on Harvard’s Jarvis baseball field in Cambridge, Massachusetts on May 14 and 15, 1874: one to be played under Harvard rules, another under the stricter rugby regulations of McGill. On June 4, 1875, Harvard faced Tufts University in the first game between two American colleges played under rules similar to the McGill/Harvard contest, which was won by Tufts.[14] The rules included each side fielding 11 men at any given time, the ball was advanced by kicking or carrying it, and tackles of the ball carrier stopped play.[15]

In 1891, the first Stanford football team was hastily organized and played a four-game season beginning in January 1892 with no official head coach. Los Angeles Times. The game was won by Tufts 1-0[9] Harvard beat McGill in the “Boston Game” on the Thursday and held McGill to a 0-0 tie on the Friday. The following season saw Vanderbilt execute a double pass play to set up the touchdown that beat Sewanee in a meeting of unbeatens for the SIAA championship. Starting in 2013, non-seeded teams can only host a playoff game if both teams involved are unseeded; in such a matchup, the schools must bid for the right to host the game. This happened in the final year of the Bowl Alliance, with Michigan winning the 1998 Rose Bowl and Nebraska winning the 1998 Orange Bowl. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

“NFL History by Decade: 1911-1920.” National Football League. The best collegiate players will typically declare for the professional draft after 3 to 4 years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring. ACTIVE.com. Associated Press. Losses to an FBS team count against their playoff eligibility, while wins against a Division II opponent do not count towards playoff consideration. Retrieved March 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. In lieu of an actual national championship, these bowl games, along with the earlier Rose Bowl, provided a way to match up teams from distant regions of the country that did not otherwise play. Yost, Michigan became the first “western” national power. Big Ten Conference – Official Athletic Site – Traditions. Other important changes, formally adopted in 1910, were the requirements that at least seven offensive players be on the line of scrimmage at the time of the snap, that there be no pushing or pulling, and that interlocking interference (arms linked or hands on belts and uniforms) was not allowed. p. 12.

^ a b Ray Soldan (September 11, 1994). Yale wins 3-0, Tommy Sherman scoring the first goal and Lew Irwin the other two.[22]

Map of CCCAA

1917 saw the rise of another Southern team in Centre of Danville, Kentucky. At the 1882 rules meeting, Camp proposed that a team be required to advance the ball a minimum of five yards within three downs. p. 4.

^ “Stanford’s Football Coach Has Arrived”. From Maverick to Mainstream: Cumberland School of Law, 1847-1997. Rockne returned to coach the team in 1918, and devised the powerful Notre Dame Box offense, based on Warner’s single wing. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. At all other levels of football, plus all other touchback situations under NCAA rules, the ball is placed on the 20.

Among other rule changes in 2007, kickoffs were moved from the 35-yard line back five yards to the 30-yard line, matching a change that the NFL had made in 1994. The game between West Virginia and Pittsburgh on October 8, 1921, saw the first live radio broadcast of a college football game when Harold W. The first game was played on San Francisco’s Haight Street Grounds on March 19, 1892 with Stanford winning 14-10. Traditional tie-ins were maintained for schools and bowls not part of the national championship. December 18, 1930. McGill football game

November 30, 1905, saw Chicago defeat Michigan 2 to 0. Lincoln Evening Journal. Basketball






Harvard-Tufts, Harvard-Yale (1875)

Map of NCAA Division III




– John C. It was the first game in the south decided by a field goal.[49] Heisman later used the trick against Pop Warner’s Georgia team. Louis Post-Dispatch photograph of Brad Robinson, who threw the first legal forward pass and was the sport’s first triple threat

The BCS ended after the 2013 season and, since the 2014 season, the FBS national champion has been determined by a four-team tournament known as the College Football Playoff (CFP). Thus, only Division I wins (whether FBS, FCS, or FCS non-scholarship) are considered for playoff selection. At this meeting, a list of rules, based more on the Football Association’s rules than the rules of the recently founded Rugby Football Union, was drawn up for intercollegiate football games.[3]




Columbia University was the third school to field a team. Smith

Alex Rodriguez suspended for entire 2014 season

He will likely appeal in federal court.

Rodriguez, one of 14 players suspended in the Biogenesis scandal, was the only one who appealed his suspension. .

Major League Baseball did not release details of the arbitrator’s decision, which the players union said it “strongly disagrees” with.

“No player should have to go through what I have been dealing with, and I am exhausting all options to ensure not only that I get justice, but that players’ contracts and rights are protected through the next round of bargaining, and that the MLB investigation and arbitration process cannot be used against others in the future the way it is currently being used to unjustly punish me,” Rodriguez said in a statement.

Story highlights The New York Yankees say they “respect” the decision Alex Rodriguez suspended for 2014 regular season and postseasonDecision will cost slugger $25 million Rodriguez plans to appeal

An arbitrator Saturday upheld most of New York Yankees slugger Alex Rodriguez’s 211-game doping suspension, keeping him out of the 162-game 2014 regular season and the postseason.

“The number of games sadly comes as no surprise, as the deck has been stacked against me from day one,” said Rodriguez, who has struggled with hip injuries in recent years.

Rodriguez, one of the best players of his generation who was once considered an automatic Hall of Fame candidate, was defiant in a statement released Saturday.

When the suspension ends in 2015, Rodriguez will be owed $61 million in a contract that runs through 2017. Though he was suspended in August, Rodriguez played out the 2013 season because of the appeal.

The former Seattle Mariner, Texas Ranger and now New York Yankee player then took a swipe at Selig, whom he has claimed in the past had an unjustified vendetta against him.

The 162-game suspension — which is the most severe punishment in baseball history for doping — highlights baseball Commissioner Bud Selig’s recent high-profile crackdown on performance-enhancing drugs. The Yankees said in a statement that they “respect Major League Baseball’s Joint Drug Prevention and Treatment Program, the arbitration process, as well as the decision released today by the arbitration panel.”

Saturday’s ruling stemmed from Rodriguez’s appeal of a his suspension by MLB, which accused him of taking performance-enhancing drugs and having ties to the now-shuttered Biogenesis clinic in South Florida.

Biogenesis was a former anti-aging clinic that MLB said supplied steroids to at least a dozen baseball players.

The ruling by Major League Baseball arbitrator Fredric Horowitz will not only cost Rodriguez $25 million in salary, it also further clouds the groundbreaking career of a player who will turn 40 during the 2015 season.

“This is one man’s decision that was not put before a fair and impartial jury,” Rodriguez said, “does not involve me having failed a single drug test, is at odds with the facts and is inconsistent with the terms of the Joint Drug Agreement and the Basic Agreement, and relies on testimony and documents that would never have been allowed in any court in the United States because they are false and wholly unreliable.”

Rodriguez, 38, is fifth on MLB’s list of all-time home run leaders, just six behind Willie Mays.

Rodriguez, who has claimed he was the target of a MLB “witch hunt,” probably will appeal Horowitz’s decision in the courts or to seek to delay the suspension

The Art of Online Football Betting

Played in nearly 200 nations in the world, the game is the most popular sport internationally. A recent change however have been that Internet has enabled the punters do online football betting. The fraudulent companies involved in online soccer betting cannot stand for long as over the years their illegitimate operations are marked and authorities punish them for their fraudulent behavior; thus, punters need to be cautious about the fact that they do not do online soccer betting with such fraudulent online betting sites..

The industry worth billions of dollars, online soccer betting also creates legitimate jobs for thousands of people not only in Europe but also in several other countries where football betting is legal and does not fall under illegal operation.

What is soccer for the Americans is football for the rest of the world. Moreover, the online sports booking is a serious business run by serious people. Thus, punters who participate in soccer betting often gamble upon the results of the games and try to make huge amount of money. A large number of online soccer betting sites have come up over the years which provide useful tips to punters which can be used to increase the chances of winning in an online soccer bet. Its increased popularity amongst the masses has promoted the sports betting based on the game results, player’s performances, the overall results in the entire championship. Moreover, as the online sports booking industry has grown tremendously over the last couple of years, the stake and size too have increased. The legalized process of online soccer betting enables all the stakeholders get their issues addressed by the concerned authority.

The emergence of online football betting has created an issue and that is that many people want to know how to play online football betting.

Though there are several fly-by-night operators claiming to be genuine online betting sites for soccer, a large number of genuine soccer betting sites are a sure shot for making huge money

College football players have visible brain changes | Reuters

“How did they get there? I think this study points out the early stages of that.”

“Maybe there is something going on early on,” he said. The athletes also took a computerized test to assess their cognitive abilities.

“People try to understand why some NFL players have what looks like Alzheimer’s in their forties,” Dr. Those who had been diagnosed with concussions also had smaller hippocampuses than the players without past concussions.

Between June 2011 and August 2013 the researchers recruited 25 college football players who had been diagnosed with a concussion, 25 players without a history of diagnosed concussion and 25 similar young men who had never played.

For now, Bellgowan suggested that parents and coaches take a conservative approach when dealing with student athletes by taking them to specialists when they walk off the field with a headache.

Bazarian was not involved with the new research, but has studied the brains of young athletes at the University of Rochester Medical Center in Rochester, New York.

The longer the young men had played football, the smaller their hippocampuses were and the slower their reaction time on one of the tests.

Both Bellgowan and Bazarian said it will take longer studies to find out whether a smaller hippocampus may cause problems for these athletes in the future.

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) – The brains of college football players may already display the effects of years of taking hits, according to a new brain imaging study.

The participants had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of their brains and researchers used the images to measure the volume of certain brain regions. “Maybe this is just the precursor of it.”

“Boys hear about the long-term effect on guys when they’re retired from football, but this shows that 20-year-olds might be having some kind of effect,” said Patrick Bellgowan, the study’s senior author from the Laureate Institute for Brain Research in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

The researchers write in JAMA that they didn’t find any differences in behavior between players and non-players, but Bellgowan told Reuters Health that a smaller hippocampus is linked to depression, schizophrenia and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE).

The symptoms of CTE, which tend to set in years after the last traumas, often include memory loss, aggression and dementia.

Bellgowan is also on the faculty at the University of Tulsa, where, he said, “Participation of the athletic department was essential to this work.”

There has been growing concern over whether the connection between contact sports – like football – and CTE, which is a brain disease known to affect some athletes who experience repeated hits to the head, may extend to younger players.. Players who had been diagnosed with concussions and those who had been playing for years had smaller hippocampuses – a brain structure critical to memory – compared to those who never played football or played for fewer years, researchers found.

The researchers found that college athletes had hippocampuses between 17 percent and 26 percent smaller than non-athletes. Jeffrey Bazarian said. “None of these players were feeling bad but their brain structure isn’t normal.”

SOURCE: bit.ly/WddS8K JAMA, online May 13, 2014.

“The conservative approach is what I’m hoping to get out there,” he said.

“We keep hearing about retired football players having diseases that relate back to smaller hippocampuses,” Bellgowan said

Richard Gere, ‘Arbitrage’ Star, On His Sporty Past

It’s not his first time working in food services. His gymnast past impressed more than just us — his 12-year-old son, while watching the Olympics with his dad, was shocked to find out Gere used to pull off the same feats as the guys on TV.

Gere has since followed other pursuits; while he’s better known for acting, Gere and his wife also run a Relais and Chateaux, a boutique hotel and restaurant. To hear more about Gere’s first job, watch the video above.

“There’s a picture of me [at home] having just done a dismount — I was actually looking pretty good,” Gere said. “He was very impressed that his dad had been a gymnast.”

We knew Richard Gere had a whole life before his star-making role in “American Gigolo,” but we didn’t know it involved a pommel horse.